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How to Make Inverter 12V to 220V

Inverters transform direct current (DC) to alternating currents (AC), hence, they are used in applications where it is impossible to get AC.  These electric devices serve as backups when there are power outages. Also, they can be used in supplying AC power to appliances. Inverter circuits have been found useful in some applications as they help generate high voltage by using batteries. This article offers well-detailed information on how to make inverter 12v to 220v.

How does an Inverter work?

An inverter cannot produce or store electricity; it can only convert direct current to alternating current. The alternating current is usually supplied to homes and industries that integrate public utility. Also, there are various applications of inverters which include solar power systems, uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), pumps, test stands, and more.

The function of an inverter is to regulate the frequency and voltage of the power and then change rotation speed of motors in industrial machines and home appliances.  An inverter converts DC power derived from a power usually 12V into AC power at 220V. This means the battery can be used to operate different electronic devices like computers, TVs, electric lights, and many more. The inverter will be connected to a battery and then the AC devices will be plugged in the inverter.

The inverter gets its power from a 12V battery or many batteries in parallel. Also, you will need to charge the battery as the inverter draws out the power. Running a car or a generator is a simple way to recharge your battery. Alternatively, you can recharge your battery by plugging a battery charger in an AC outlet.

How to Make Inverter 12V to 220V

An inverter circuit can easily convert DC power to AC power. There are two types of inverters which are modified inverters and True/pure sine wave inverters. The true/pure sine wave inverters are much more expensive compared to the modified inverters. Modified inverters generate square waves which can’t power delicate electronic devices. In this case, a voltage is generated from the inverter circuit with the use of power transistors and this transforms 12 DC signal to 220V AC.

The main purpose of inverter circuits is to use a particular DC to generate oscillations and use these oscillations across the main part of the transformer. Based on the amount of turns in secondary and primary coils, the primary voltage will be increased to a higher voltage.

Also, you can use simple transistors to make a 12V to 220V inverter. You will need two sheets of aluminum and heat sinks for this purpose. This inverter can power lamps that are about 35W and can as well drive more loads by using more MOSFETS.  A square wave inverter can work with devices that need no pure sine wave AC.

Types of Inverters

As it was earlier mentioned, there are two main types of inverters that serve consumer purposes. These are pure sine wave inverters and modified sine wave inverters.

Pure sine wave inverters

The output of a pure sine wave inverter has a pure wave form. These inverters are ideal for most electronic products since they are powered by mains. They are particularly ideal for motorized devices where pure sine wave power can increase the lifetime of a product. Pure wave inverters are better than modified sine wave inverters because they have low harmonic distortion and low electrical noise.

Modified sine wave inverters

These inverters are called modified sine waves because of their output. This output cycles through negative, positive, and ground voltage in order to supply the same output waveform as pure sine wave. Also, these inverters are cheaper since the output waveform requires no complicated system. However, harmonic distortion to audio equipment is likely to happen in modified sine wave inverters.

How to use Astable Multivibrator to Convert 12V DC to 220V AC

Inverter circuits can use transistors as switching devices in some applications. Power transistors are usually used for medium and low power applications since they feature low output impedance, which allow the flow of high current at the output.  Switching is one of the main uses of a transistor. The transistor is usually biased in saturation in this type of application.

The collector base junctions and the collector emitter are biased when the transistor becomes biased in the saturation region. Also, the collector current is high while the collector emitter voltage is low. The oscillator is a crucial part of the inverter circuit. The 555 timer IC serves as an astable multivibrator in this circuit.

An astable multivibrator generates an output signal that has the capability to switch between two states. The resistors and capacitors’ values will determine the frequency of the oscillation.

How to Connect the Inverter

A good number of small inverters have crocodile clips fixed to the negative and positive terminals of a battery. Large inverters with 500W and more should be hard-wired to a battery directly. Furthermore, the distance between the inverter and battery determines the cable size. There are specifications in the instruction manual of the inverter.

Inverters that use a single cable set have recommendations and this may not be applicable to all applications or inverters. Also, some inverters need two or more cable sets, hence, they need a different cable size. Different inverter brands have different recommendations for their cable sizes. It is important you check the instruction manual to know the recommendation for the brand you purchase.

It is advisable to always make use of the thickest wire when connecting an inverter to the battery. Marine batteries usually supply enough power supply within 30 to 60 minutes even in situations where the engine has gone off. The condition and age of the battery will determine the actual time it can go. 

Conclusion

There are many inverter circuits available online, but these circuits are so complicated. Hence, it is advisable to learn how to build low cost and highly efficient power inverters. A simple inverter integrates a few components to convert 12V DC to 220V AC.

 

 

 

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