PCB Etch Introduction
Almost any electronic home brewer needs to etch a printed circuit board (PCB) at home before considering assembling a circuit. As we know, a variety of methods are there that do not needs etching, such as, protoboards, dead-bug sort, wire wrapping, and others. These types of techniques are supposed to be very effective for hand application, but a truly etched PCB is needed in fewer cases.
If you already have a design, whether it was made with CAD software, hand-drawn, written in a publication, or on a sheet of paper, three of the following stages are there to getting a finished PCB:
- Pass the design to the metal,
- Then etch the copper
- Eventually, perform some Mechanical Task as like cutting or drilling.
A key difference in the way an inner layer and an exterior layer are produced in the manner traditional of printed circuit boards (PCBs) is that the pictures are used in two very different forms. When an external layer is formed, the photoresist serves as a “plate resistor,” specifying the pattern of where the electroplated metal can be used.
The movement toward further miniaturization persists. The industry expects dimensions1 for rigid and flex circuits that are not commercially producible with current technologies. Low yield and unmet technical criteria necessitate a technological change. Micro vias with diameters less than 40m and tracks with widths less than 50m are required for high density interconnect (HDI) circuits.
A perfect concept will be a low-cost device with a single laser source that is versatile enough to cover a wide variety of applications on modular and rigid boards. Small and medium-sized businesses would be able to enter the laser technology market as a result of this. A perfect machine must be flexible enough to punch holes while still structuring circuitry and scribe and path boards for a higher return on investment.
First Step – Convert your Design Idea to the copper
Start by buying many boards made of copper, single or double-sided according to your needs. The best-known substrate is FR-4 (glass fiber and epoxy) 1.6 mm (1/16″) thick, one or two copper layers 35 m (1.4 miles) in length: this is sufficient for the overwhelming majority of household businesses. There are other board thicknesses to remember whether you think about weight or mechanical ability.
The first question is to transfer your idea into copper: if you do not have a CAD instrument, you should use the old method of direct drawing if you need just one PCB. Use a permanent marker to draw marks directly on the copper. One piece of ink is not enough; allow it to dry for 10 minutes until it is redrawn to thicken the sheet.
Next Step – Direct Drawing
If you are using boards with photo-sensitive lacquer on them (see below), the copper surface will begin by cleaning (s). Any of the ground, oxidation, sweat, or finger pressures could interrupt the etching operation, which may result in unwanted copper spots on your final PCB.
You should also use nail polish instead of a permanent marker: one coat is normally sufficient, but it is much more costly. Letter transfer may be used for complex and accurate patterns such as IC footprints. This method may also be used to incorporate text or draw straight lines. All of these strategies can be combined on the same PCB.
Even though this approach works and I’ve used it for a long time, it’s incredibly time-consuming, produces just one PCB, and looks hand-drawn.
Popular Methods for Etching Inner-Layers
The biggest distinction in both methods is the usage of patented chemicals by the Ammoniacal etch, and standard chemicals by the Cupric Chloride etchant. As a consequence, the producer provides the process technology and engineering with Ammoniacal etch. The technology is usually offered by the end consumer where the Cupric Chloride etches is used.
It is necessary to note that technology is available to turn many of these etching chemicals into closed loop structures at this time. In other terms, any unit will only return metallic copper and not spent etchant to the user.
While these closing schemes greatly alter the economics of these etchants, these systems are likely to be economical only to very broad customers because of the high capital investment involved. Both closed-loop systems electroplate copper from the spent etchant expressly or implicitly and add the regenerated etchant to the process.
Step Third: Drilling and Cutting
Drilling with regular HSS (high-speed steel) bits is not advised since the FR-4 glass fiber is unpredictable and maybe dull after just a few holes. drills are not recommended. Use heavy metal (tungsten carbide) pieces that can last long, but are very fragile: use a constant boiling press and safety lenses. Take a glove, too, if you do not want glass fiber fragments to breathe. I use three main diameters for domestic use: 1.0 mm for the majority of pieces, 1.5 mm for some heavy components (large electrolytic condensers, fuse holders, terminal blocks, etc.), and 3.2 mm for openings. The Hacksaw fits well for cutting PCBs and considering the rigidity of the glass fiber the blade lasts a long time. The edges can also be filed with a regular metal file immune to the toughness of the FR-4.
PCB Laser Etching
Marco attached a strong laser diode to a CNC machine a while ago in an effort to etch copper clad board and build a few PCBs. The effects weren’t spectacular, but the technique seemed promising. In a recent trial, [Marco] bought a low-cost laser engraver kit from China, and this technique seems to be a winner.
Marco got his laser engraver from Banggood, and it’s pretty much what you’d hope for a CNC computer under $200. The chassis is made of aluminum extrusion, the motors are off-the-shelf steppers, the electronics are all Pololu-like drivers, and the program is mediocre at best. Nonetheless, using a large blue laser diode, this gadget can cut wood, leather, and cloth, as well as clear spray paint.
Marco begins by washing a piece of copper clad board, spraying it with spray paint, and then blasting it with a laser to produce his PCBs. LeaseWeb is the recommended program for this, and the results are very strong for such a low-cost machine. Once the board has been painted and laser blasted, there are a few more measures to making the PCB. This method also necessitates etching in ferric chloride or some other acid, but the effects are satisfactory. Marco is working with copper foil and Kapton to make lightweight circuit boards because they are too good. The recording of these tests is available below.
1. Laser Routing
UV lasers are especially well suited for the precise cutting of HDI applications due to their freely programmable and modular mode of operation.
The established laser was capable of processing a wide range of material combinations. An HDI multilayer with six layers of various materials (FR4 / polyimide/epoxy resin and acrylate resin) is seen. The cutting speed was 10mm per second. There was no delamination.
Furthermore, as seen, glass-fiber reinforced FR4 could be treated with a UV laser. The edges are clean and do not need any post-processing, as is typically done for mechanical routing, punching, or CO2 laser cutting.
2. Scanner concept
This device is compatible with CAM software12 that supports all standard data formats, including Gerber TM RS-274S and RS-274X, Excellon TM I and II, Sieb & MeierTM, DXFTM, BarcoTM DPF, HP-GL, and ODB++TM.
Surface sensing with a resolution of 1m compensates for inconsistent planarity by controlling the board’s topography, allowing access. The laser focus can be adjusted using tools. The substrate fixture is built around a honeycomb vacuum unit. Emitted gases can eventually be separated and purified into an active charcoal device. The laser device is protected and in accordance with laser protection class I.
We have built PCBs for my designs since the mid-1980s. It has always been a long and labor-intensive process; one PCB took approximately half a day to complete. Over the years, we have been looking for solutions that can accelerate the process by not utilizing expensive or hard-to-find materials. The two methods, toner transmission, and hydrochloric acid etching are listed here, which enable PCB development from concept to solder-able board in less than half an hour. We like this method of making PCBs and use them more often than before, and I hope that you will also find them helpful. The laser is arc lamp-pumped, allowing users to adjust lamps individually. The lamp life is defined as 300 hours of operation, and the device tuning takes the least amount of time.
The majority of PCBs are made of FR4, which is a glass-reinforced epoxy plastic with copper traces on one or both sides for signal transmission. Although the copper traces seem to be etched onto a blank sheet of fiberglass, the truth is that circuit boards are made from a fully copper-plated sheet. Both excess copper must be extracted in order to isolate the traces. The dilemma is that your chemical etchant has no idea where the traces should be, so you must mask them off to keep them hidden from the etchant.