Skip to content

Basic Types of Machine Vision Robot System

A computer is a powerful machine that can process large volumes of visual data. Most companies use this technology for industrial and scientific processes requiring accurate pattern recognition.

Examples of these applications include material inspection, object recognition, pattern recognition, electronic component analysis, and the recognition of optical characters, currency, and more. If you’re wondering which type of machine vision system you need, check out our quick guide below.

Line scan

A line scan camera is good for inspecting webs and cylindrical objects. It has a flat field of view and excels at imaging large objects with high resolution. It can also view through rollers on a conveyor.

These machines help inspect continuous processes and high-speed conveying systems. In addition, they fit into small spaces. Line scan cameras are useful in manufacturing environments where the parts are in constant motion.

Difference from other machines

One of the main differences between line-scan cameras and other types of machine vision systems is the sensitivity of the sensors. As a result, some cameras are better suited for high-speed operation, while others have higher sensitivity.

You can use line-scan cameras to detect defects and read text. However, the sensor’s sensitivity varies greatly, so the choice of the sensor will depend on the tasks you plan to perform.

2D vision robot

Two-dimensional (or 2D) machine vision systems provide area scans of discrete parts. They are the most used machine vision technologies compatible with most vision software packages.

While 2D systems typically feature around 5 MPixels, higher-resolution cameras are increasingly becoming standard products in 2D product lineups. Several factors play a role in the decision between the different resolutions. One factor is speed, while another is cost. Related optics are also crucial in determining the resolution.

3D robotic vision systems

The 3D robot Vision market is highly fragmented. Three-dimensional machine vision systems are fitted with multiple cameras to capture 3-dimensional images of objects. They are accompanied by a robotics application that can give universal robots part-oriented information.

As each camera has different objectives, 3D mapping gives accurate inspection results and accounts for unexpected factors. The 3D mapping capabilities of 3D robot Vision systems make them particularly suitable for metrology, defect detection, and guidance. However, 3D Machine Vision systems have other advantages as well.


Embedded vision is becoming an increasingly popular way to automate industrial processes. Unlike traditional vision systems, embedded vision components are typically small and low-cost and you can easily integrate them into various products. As a result, they are the foundation for modern production and intelligent robotic automation.

Embedded vision can identify defects or abnormalities without human interaction. With the help of neural networks, embedded vision systems can determine the appropriate response in a given situation.

How Do Robots Perceive the World?

Vision ROBOT System

How do robots perceive the world? There are several ways that they perceive the environment, and we’ll explore each of them in turn. Let’s start with inference methods. Sensors, Cognition, and Time perception are all essential components of perception.

These factors contribute to the way robots make decisions about their environment. We can think of inference methods as a set of rules that a robot can use to learn and improve its perception.

Inference methods

The active inference is a computational theory for biological agents that formulates every task as an inference problem, requiring the agent to infer the target location of a parking spot from a human observer’s judgments.

This theory was tested on a ground-based robot, which was given the complex task of learning the location of a parking spot from its human observer. To understand how Active inference works, we first need to understand the basic model of an active inference agent.

The active inference is a framework that explains how the brain works. It combines principles of statistics with physics to understand the causal relationships between different behaviors. It can simulate a variety of behaviors, from learning to control and estimation.


To achieve the same level of interaction as humans, robots must be able to perceive the world physically. While humans have a mental representation of their environment, robots struggle to translate pixel values into semantic objects.

MIT researchers have developed a robot spatial perception model mimics how humans navigate the world. This model has important implications for future robot interaction. Read on to learn more about how robots perceive the world.

Humans can differentiate between bodies at two years old, but the computation required for this is too complex for machines to perform. So Dr. Lanillos devised an algorithm that enabled three robots to distinguish humans from other objects.


The eSMCs project aims to apply cognitive modeling to robots to create better behavior. This research deals with contingencies sensomotoras, or regularities between actions and changes in the sensory variations associated with those actions. This includes, for example, actions like drinking water simultaneously as speaking. Robots are also capable of discriminating between bites and grains of acne. But how do they do this?

Perception is critical to robots’ future performance. Robots must understand their environment to complete tasks such as working in factories, quickly delivering packages in warehouses, exploring Mars, and performing many other tasks.

Time perception

Learning about time perception in robots is essential for many different reasons. First, time is one of the most critical components of our daily lives, and robots are no exception. For instance, dolphins and bats excel at this task because they use echolocation to sense time. They can do this because they are social animals, so they use this information to communicate with other living organisms. Likewise, a robot’s ability to perceive time is vital for many different tasks, including learning to detect and avoid danger.

The arousal-based time perception model suggests that emotional arousal affects time perception. Anger and fearful stimuli evoked overestimation. These findings suggest that these emotions affect the operation of attentional processes, which are responsible for orienting and disengaging attention. The Go/NoGo task may have stimulated noradrenergic pathways and attentional mechanisms to enhance time perception. BIS is also implicated in the process.

Examples of Vision Guided Robotic Systems


Vision guided robots are AV systems that use cameras as secondary feedback signals to control the robot’s movements. This system helps the robot to move more accurately by recognizing objects and environments around it. Here are some examples of VGSs. The XG-X series is a popular choice for this type of AV system. It is a 3D stereo camera fitted with two or more lenses.

3D stereo cameras

Using 3D stereo cameras in a robot vision system is a promising way to improve the accuracy of its range and detection capabilities. A computer vision system is a versatile tool for industrial applications, allowing a robot to recognize and identify objects. However, there is need to first complete a calibration process to make the most of this technology.

Computer vision enables the robot to calculate the 3D coordinates of point clouds on the surface of an object. This data is helpful in 3D building mapping and other applications. In addition, 3D analysis software can also use point clouds to make accurate estimates.

2D cameras

A robot vision system may use 2D cameras to observe parts being handled by the robot. For example, the robot vision randomly picks up a sheet metal part using a suction-cup gripper, and the camera determines its position on the gripper. This information is important to direct the robotic arm to place the part where it belongs. There are several types of cameras and imaging processes available for 2D applications.

The first robot vision systems to use two-dimensional (2D) cameras came into the limelight in the 1990s. These systems provide two-dimensional (x, y) feedback and are best suited for simple, repeatable applications.

2.5D cameras

There are several advantages to installing 2.5D cameras in a robot vision system. First, it reduces the need for cables to be run along the robot arm. It optimizes cycle time and allows the robot to continue working while the vision system captures images.

Moreover, it is possible to get one-shot calibration, which eliminates tedious calibration processes. Robots equipped with 2.5D cameras can address the most demanding applications.

Cobot and LIRAs are cost-effective industrial robot arms that are safe for operation around people. When paired with easy-to-use robot vision systems, you can deploy them quickly. We can also use machine vision in a variety of vision-based applications.

KEYENCE’s XG-X series

The XG-X series is a highly customizable computer vision system with advanced imaging and programming capabilities. With flowchart programming and an easy system setup, you can customize this computer vision system to meet your requirements.

Its multi-camera hardware supports all KEYENCE cameras, including 3D cameras. This high-resolution system is excellent for challenging inspection applications and can help you solve part variation issues.

The XG-X series system has a 21 MPixel camera with a frame rate of 9 fps. In addition, the camera features a 4/3-inch CMOS image sensor, C-mount lenses, and 3.5 um x 3.5 um pixel size. The advanced hardware and software allow for synchronized lighting for accurate detection.

KUKA’s MotoSight 2D

With its wide range of applications, KUKA’s MotoSight 2d robot vision system can meet the needs of a variety of manufacturing environments. The system is suited for various applications ranging from fast-moving consumer goods to food production.

In addition to its flexibility and ease of integration, the MotoSight system also offers code recognition, simplifying product traceability and quality control. As a result, this technology helps manufacturers protect production output while lowering costs.

KEYENCE’s CV-X series

Developed to help manufacturers improve efficiency and quality, KEYENCE’s CV-X robotic vision system uses high-speed cameras to detect defects, locate parts, and verify correct assembly.

The system is IP64 and IP67-rated and comes with troubleshooting features that reduce downtime and simplify the replication of systems. In addition, with its built-in character recognition tools, users will no longer need an initial character library.

KEYENCE’s CV-X robotic vision system has many features, including ring-lighting technology, high-speed monochrome cameras, and advanced hardware and vision software. In addition, the CV-X series has an integrated multi-spectrum lighting unit that supports eight wavelengths of light, including infrared, ultraviolet, and visible spectrums.


Vision guided robots are a type of robotics designed to perform a task. These systems are equipped with cameras that act as secondary feedback signals. As a result, they can help a robot move more accurately. Depending on how the robot sees the environment, it will know where to move. Machine vision can do all this without human assistance. In addition, we can use robot vision in various applications, including robotic surgery and factory production.