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What Causes Warpage PCB Issue?

PCBs are usually made from fiberglass and some other composite material. Majority of the PCBs are only laminated once and are very simple. Depending on the purpose of the PCB, the creation is done with a different component. PCB is used mainly as the base in electronics. It can also be used as a surface support piece. PCBs are not only found in computers, but also in other electronics. They are found in industrial machines, medical devices, lightning, etc. The PCB is a small board. PCB allows for the signal to be accessible among two devices physically.

Stress is one of the usual causes of warpage PCB issues. Stress usually occurs during the PCB construction process. This is because, during its construction process, it goes through expansion and shrinking. The expansion and shrinking are what causes internal stress. When the internal stress is released it causes warpage PCB issues. Another cause of warpage PCB issue is the temperature during operation. During fabrication, the PCB passes through various heat treatments.

There are other various causes of warpage issues. It is possible for complications to arise. It can be the weight, the connections, and also the processing. But there are ways to prevent warpage issues and also how they can be treated. Analyzing PCB warpage has given rise to different reasons why it could happen. There are also different types of PCB. Some of the types are single-sided PCB, double-sided PCB, rigid PCB, flexible PCB, rigid-flex PCB etc. In addition, microprocessor PCB is used in all types of electronics.

Warpage PCB

warpage in pcb

PCB warpage issue is the alteration of PCB shape. It is a change in the PCB that was not planned for. When processing a warp PCB, the transition can occur as a part of the soldering pattern. When soldering is taking place, the shape of the PCB may not be the same as the initial shape.

To have proper placement of the SMT must be flat in shape. If the PCB has a warpage that means it is not flat, it makes it unable for the PCB to maintain a constant height. Warpage PCB has an impact that only people in the industry know about. PCB warpage has been a major concern a few years back. Due its thin board and thick content, PCB warpage is likely to cause construction issues.

The component may also fail if the issues are not attended to during construction. One challenge here is that placement of coppers is now less uniform. This causes PCB warpage in many ways. PCB warpage can lead to poor solder linking and even damage the component. Therefore, the need to address the problem at its early stage.

To avoid warpage in PCB the constructor should make sure the copper-clad balance on the PCB. Solder the construction from the inner part to the outer part to evade shrinking stress. There is no need to apply too much force during welding. Also try not to overheat, use more heat where needed and little heat on the thinner part.

Internal stress can also be reduced by air-cooling. The steel used in construction should be different as possible all through the construction. During molten zinc steel bath steel, leaving steel for too long should not happen. Ensure that you arrange a PCB flat after construction.

Bent PCB

There are two types of PCB, the flexible and rigid PCB. The construction of Flexible PCB is done with a component that makes it easy to reshape. In addition, the construction of Rigid PCB is done in a way that they cannot be shaped again after construction.

So many reasons can cause bent PCB issues. Stress is one of the common ones. When stress greater than the PCB is applied to it, it can cause bent PCB problems right away. High temperatures can soften PCB. During the SMT procedure, the use of high temperature is necessary. If the temperature gets to its highest value limit of the TG capacity, the PCB will bend.

When the temperature gets too high, it turns the substrate from glass to rubber. Most constructors don’t know about this and overheat it, which makes the PCB bend. Constructors that design PCB should consider the position of the copper on the PCB. Copper position on the PCB can also cause it to bend when placed at high temperatures.

In addition, if the PCB is big and the SMD is hefty in component, it can cause it to bend. There is a V-cut constructed for easily separating PCB. It can spoil the structure of the PCB. It can also cause bent PCB. Most types of PCB have a procedure for bending and flexing. But the mode of construction and component used will determine how flexible a PCB is.

PCB that is constructed with glass is not flexible, and cannot bend. You cannot use Flexible PCB in place of rigid PCB. Flattening the bowl mold of the PCB is another technique that can help maintain a flat shape of the PCB. I can also help in maintaining the color of the PCB.

Warpage in PCB

Warpage in PCB can be caused by various issues. Most times, these issues can be divided into mechanical and thermal stress. Warpage caused by thermal stress occurs when a pressing procedure is going on. But warpage caused by mechanical stress occurs during baking and handling of the plate. The depth of the V-cut will is also a cause of warpage in PCB.

The V-cut causes destruction to the PCB structure. This is because it furrows the initial large sheet. So, during this process warpage in PCB usually happens. Another element that causes warpage in PCB is thermal heat. The elastic and expansion properties change when the temperature gets to a certain point. This abnormal expansion can also cause warpage in PCB.

However, there are ways to detect warpage earlier. One of the ways is by using trace mapping technology, to predict warpage. This procedure is done by mapping the copper constituent. Observing this process makes it easier for the creator in arriving at the correct answer.

Placing CCL incorrectly can also cause warpage in PCB. If the PCB is not flat, it will make it inaccurate. An acute angle is also one of the warpage issues in PCB. It is caused by acid trapped in the PCB. The acid trapped in PCB can alter connection problems and make the board defective. It is caused by human mistakes and if not detected early can cause serious warpage issues later on.

In addition, flux remnants from cleaning after soldering can as well cause warpage in PCB. Faulty thermal can as well cause abnormal heat reflow in PCB. It can also make the construction process slow. Warpage PCB is noticed by a very experienced construction company. The thermals that are faulty should be replaced to avoid warpage in PCB.

PCB Warpage Issue

When producing PCBs, the usage of some unsuitable components can cause physical damages to the PCB. It can harm the PCB and cause electricity failure. PCB warpage can affect the construction of printed PCB. Warpage issue is a problem in PCB production that you cannot ignore. PCB warpage mostly occurs after repair and the element feet are hard to clean.

PCB warpage holds after the entire operation of the next process. Warpage issue is also likely to be caused by the substrate used in the process of making PCB. Also, when storing CCL the sucking up of moisture is likely to increase warpage issues.

Warpage in PCB is also measured by using a geometric-based diagram. This helps to generate the pattern distribution. The PCB warpage issue is also caused by swapping old components for new ones. Installation of the PCB in a machine or socket is very difficult when there is a warpage.

Recently PCB is either mounted or chipped into a machine. This is why warpage issue is one of the major concerns. The PCB construction company has to inspect warpage issue thoroughly. So when warpage is discovered on a plate it is selected and baked again. While baking this time, it is done under pressure and taken out of the oven using pressure relief.

However, after baking the PCB again and still doesn’t work, it should be disposed of. PCB warpage issue is a serious concern for manufacturers. It makes PCB production slow and late. There is an arc-shaped mold used for thermal leveling. This leveling process is easy and good. Using the level thermal machine, the PCB warpage can be solved. It also makes your construct finish earlier.

PCB Warping

PCB warping is caused by design and manufacturing issues. The PCB with obtuse and concealed holes needs multiple layering. Most constructors need to be aware of this issue to be able to know what to do and how to do it. This is also one of the common causes of PCB warping.

Sizes and shapes of the PCB can as well cause warping. Bigger and larger tabs on the panel structure can cause PCB warping. Also, if the plate you’ll be using isn’t smooth, it causes imperfect positioning. This can cause the construction plant to get stuck thereby causing PCB warping.

In addition, trying to make the PCB thicker than its normal weight can cause the PCB to warp. Sometimes the manufacturers don’t remember to de-stress after layering. This causes PCB to warp after manufacturing. In addition, using DFM check is a good technique used to detect possible PCB warping. When warping occurs in PCB it causes lots of damage that most times can’t be repaired.

Immediately warping is detected it should be addressed instantly. But if repair is not possible it can be discarded. Most times, when soldering, the solder machine may pick up solder and spread it all through the PCB. This can cause PCB warping. Another solution for avoiding PCB warping is by deducting the copper weight.

Also, when soldering and constructing, use the proper clamp-down technique to hold the PCB flat. When heating, make sure that the heat goes around at the same time and the same amount. One of the major issues of constructing when processing warped PCBs is that warping increases the heat and stress used when joining. One of the aims should be component balance. Once the component employed during construction is balanced, PCB warping can be avoided.

More on PCB Warpage

PCB does not perform equal functions in all electronic devices. Its performance is not universal. A lot of factors contribute to what causes PCB warpage issues. These factors are considered very serious, because it may lead to the total destruction of the PCB. However, there are different types of PCB and their functions differ from each other. Warpage in PCB is an unplanned malfunction of PCB.

Warpage most causes deformed PCB. If soldering is not carefully done, it may cause warping and damage to the PCB. Also, techniques for treating and avoiding PCB can be employed. There are also ways to calculate the PCB warpage. Trace mapping techniques can accurately predict the possible warpage in PCB. In addition, misalignment in machines used to construct is usually caused by bent PCB.

During construction, the PCB should be closely monitored. A lot of industrial sectors now have a high demand for PCB. PCB has lots of components, which are used in its production. During PCB production it is usually tested to confirm its authenticity before distribution. This is done to make sure the PCB is reliable and ready for use. Testing PCB is done early to make corrections before it becomes irreversible or causes warpage.

Frequently Asked Questions

How can I stop or prevent PCB warpage?

In order to prevent or stop PCB warpage, the copper pattern must be balanced by the designer on the board’s layer with the area of the circuit. In addition, the designer has to equalize the layout of the component, the distribution of the assembly, as well as its thermal distribution, in order to decrease the warpage.

What leads to PCB failure?

The major causes of PCB failure are environmental factors. These include exposure to moisture, dust, and heat, power surges/overloads, and accidental impact (falls and drops).


Having read through this article, you should understand what causes warpage PCB issues, bent pcb, pcb warping, and more. If you have any questions, feel free to contact us.