The ball grid array (BGA) printed circuit boards (PCBs) are a type of surface mounting package PCBs which are utilized for specifically for integrated circuits. The BGA boards are being used for the applications where the surface mount are permanent, for example, in devices like microprocessors. These are one time usable printed circuit boards and cannot be reused. The BGA boards are having more interconnection pins than normal PCBs. Each of the points on BGA boards can be solder independently. The entire connection of these PCBs are dispersed in the form of a uniform matrix or surface grid. The design of these PCBs are so as entire bottom surface can be easily utilized instead of the utilization of only perimeter area.
The leads of the BGA packages are very shorter than normal PCBs as it has a perimeter only type shape. Due to this reason it has yielding to offer better performance with higher speeds. The BGA soldering is requiring to have a precise control and is more often led through autonomous machines. This is the reason why the BGA devices are not feasible to be used for the purpose of socket mounting.
The Soldering Technique of BGA Packages
Use of reflow oven is made in order to solder the BGA package on to the printed circuit board. When the melting of the soldering balls begins inside the oven, the tension of surface of molten balls is keeping the package to remain align in its actual location over the printed circuit board. The process continues till package is taken out from oven, cools down, and become solid. To have durable solder joints, controlled soldering process of BGA packages is very necessary and achieving required temperature is also mandatory. When proper soldering technique is applied, it also eradicates any chance of short circuits as well.
The Pros of BGA Packages
There are numerous advantages of BGA packages, however only top most pros are mentioned below in detail.
1. BGA Packages use PCB Space Efficiently: The BGA packages use is directing the use of lesser components along with small footprints. These packages are also helping in saving enough space for customization in PCBs which is increasing its efficacy.
2. The Improvement in Electrical and Thermal Performance: The size of the BGA packages is very small, due to which the heat dissipation of these PCBs is less and the process of dissipation is also easy to achieve. Most of the heat is transferred directly to the ball grid whenever the silicon wafer is mounted over the top. However, in case when the silicon wafer is mounter on bottom, then the silicon wafer is connecting the top portion of the package. This is reason why it is considered as best for the heat dissipation techniques. There are no bendable or breakable pins in the BGA packages, therefore the durability of these PCBs increases and it is also ensuring good electrical performance.
3. Improvement in the Profit of Manufacturing through Improvement in Welding: The pads of the BGA packages are large enough that makes them perfect for easy soldering and are convenient to be handled. Therefore, the easy soldering and handling make its manufacturing very speedy. The larger pads of such PCBs also makes it very easy to re-work on it if needed.
4. Less Danger of Damage: The BGA packages are having solid soldering due to which offers it’s much strength and durability during its operation in any conditions.
5. Reduction of Costs: The advantages described above are helping in the reduction of costs of the BGA packages. The effective utilization of printed circuit boards are offering further opportunities for saving materials and improvement in the performance of thermoelectric assisting in assurance of the high quality electronic products and also decrease defects.
Cons of BGA Packages
The following are some cons of the BGA packages, described in detail.
1. The Inspection process is very difficult: During the time of soldering components on to the BGA packages, it is very difficult to inspect the circuit. It is very difficult to inspect for any potential fault in th BGA package. The package is very difficult to read and inspect after the soldering of each component is done. Even if any bug is found during inspection, it is very difficult to fix it. Therefore, for making inspection easy, CT scans and X-ray techniques are used which are very expensive.
2. Reliability Issues: The BGA packages are vulnerable to stress. The vulnerability is due to the flexural stress. This flexural stress is leading these printed circuit boards to reliability issues. Even though reliability issues are rare in BGA packages, however its possibility is always there.
RayPCB Technology of BGA Packages
The most common technology that RayPCB have adopted for the BGA packages size is 0.3mm and the least distance that the circuit must have in between lines is maintained as 0.2mm. The minimum space among two different BGA packages if maintained to be 0.2mm. However, if requirement is different, then contact RAYPCB for changes providing desired details. The distances in the BGA packages size are shown in the image below.
The Future of BGA Packages
The fact cannot be denied that in future the BGA packages will be leading the electrical and electronic product markets. The future of BGA packages is solid and it will be inn in the market for considerably long time. However, the pace of current advancement in technology is very fast, and it is anticipated that in near future, there would be another type of printed circuit boards being more effective then BGA packages. However, advancement in technology also brings inflation and cost matters a lot in electronic products world. Therefore due to the reasons of cost effectiveness and durability, it is assumed that BGA packages will go a long way to be used in electronics industry. Moreover, there are numerous types of BGA packages and its variance in types increases importance of BGA packages. For instance, if certain type of BGA package does not fits in an electronic product, some other type of BGA package will be used instead.