What Is a Single Side PCB?
Single side PCB is a one layer PCB, in which all electronic components are on one side of the board and all circuits at another layer.
Component parts is layouted on one side and the circuit is on the other side. As there is only layer conductor, it is called single sided pcb (Single-sided pcb or one layer pcb. It is restricted in the circuit design (because there is only one side conductor, and no cross permitted, each line must have its own path), so it is more frequently used in the early printed circuits pcb.
Single sided PCB diagram mainly use network printing (Screen Printing) .That is to print resist on the bare copper, etch and then print solder mask, finally punching to finish parts plated hole and profile. In addition, some small amount of various products usually use photoresist to pattern circuit.
Single Sided PCB Stack Up
Single layer pcb Raw Material
Fr4 Grade Fiberglass Laminates
Single Side PCB Working Principle
PCB uses raw insulating material to isolate the surface copper foil conductive layer. Due to this, the current flows in various components along a pre-designed route to complete functions such as work, amplification, attenuation, modulation, demodulation, encoding, etc.
Single PCB Structure
The main functions of each part are as follow:
Pad: A metal hole used to solder the pins of components.
Via: A metal hole used to connect component pins between layers.
Mounting hole: Used to fix the circuit board.
Wire: The copper film of the electrical network used to connect the pins of the components.
Connectors: Used to connect components between circuit boards.
Filling: Used for copper coating of ground wire network, which can effectively reduce impedance.
Electrical boundary: Used to determine the size of the circuit board; all components on the circuit board cannot exceed the boundary.
Single Side PCB Technology
|Material type :||XPC FR-1 FR-4 CEM-1|
|Surface finish :||ENIG gold, HASL Immersion Tin, Chemical Silver OSP|
|Layer No :||Single side, Multilayer PCB|
|Max PCB size:||1500mm*600mm|
|Min PCB size:||5mm*5mm|
|Warp and Twist:||≤0.5%(board thickness：1.6mm，PCB size ： 300mm*300mm)|
|PTH Dia tolerance:||±0.076mm|
|Outline tolerance:||CNC ：±0.1mm punch：±0.15mm|
Single Side PCB Function
After electronic equipment adopts circuit boards, manual wiring errors can be avoided due to the consistency of similar circuit boards. Electronic components can be automatically inserted or mounted, automatic soldering, and automatic detection, ensuring the quality of electronic equipment and improving labor productivity, reduce costs, and facilitate maintenance.
Single Side PCB Material
Printed single-sided PCB is generally made of foil-clad and copper-clad laminates. The plate selection should consider electrical performance, feasibility, processing requirements, economic indicators, etc. Commonly used copper-clad laminates include copper-clad phenol paper laminates, copper-clad epoxy paper laminates, and copper-clad laminates. For multilayer PCB, foil epoxy glass cloth laminate, copper-clad epoxy phenol glass cloth laminate, copper-clad PTFE glass cloth laminate, and epoxy glass cloth are used.
Single Side PCB Price
The single PCB price is accelerated and rationalized with the improvement of single side PCB production technology and equipment. Usually, suppliers will not directly provide quotations. You can consult Raypcb Electronics for single PCB quotations.
Single Side PCB Supplier
RayMing is a high-tech enterprise specializing in the production and R&D of various single-sided PCB. The single-sided PCB, single-sided aluminum PCB, single-sided circuit boards, and other various FR-4 circuit boards produced with comparable advanced foreign products. Product specifications apply to electronic watches, calculators, general-purpose computers, as large as computers, electronic communication equipment, and military weapon systems. Lastly, PCBs are used for electrical interconnection if there are electronic components such as integrated circuits.
Single Side PCB Production Time
What’s should be the focus on for single side PCB?
- Production time:3-5 days for sample, 5-7 days for mass production
- Quality request:The customer’s detailed requirements, size, thickness, craftsmanship, whether it is invoiced, can it be collected by express delivery, and are there any special requirements?
- Are mass production required in the future? Is it long-term cooperation? All of them should be figure it out one by one.
How to improve long delivery time for single side PCB?
1. Make more boards in stock
2. Arrange the full day production
3. The delivery date needs to be negotiated with the customer
How to maintain Single Side PCB?
Circuit board engineers have their maintenance methods and ideas. However, the maintenance steps can be summarized in the following six steps. To understand the board’s failure to repair, first understand the failure situation and set the failure judgment within a smaller range to facilitate the maintenance work. Therefore, understanding the failure of the circuit board is very important for starting maintenance.
1. Board observation: Board observation is preliminary research. The purpose is to understand what input and output interfaces the board has, what functions the board implements, and the distribution of various control parts of the board.
2. Circuit test: After completing the fault observation and analysis, perform preliminary inspections on the board. The initial circuit test may not find the board’s fault point, but an experienced circuit board maintenance personnel manually perform the test, exclude a wide range of faults, and pave the way for the next repair.
3. Component inspection: In most component inspections, the components need to be removed from the PCBA circuit board with a soldering iron and inspected by professional equipment. This process will damage the circuit board’s external integrity, so under normal circumstances, maintenance personnel will not dismantle components.
4. Fault maintenance: Fromline testingto component inspection, the maintenance steps are designed to deal with the faults discovered, including line repair, component replacement, and transformation.
5. Test on the computer: The board that has completed the maintenance work needs to be tested again. After confirming that there is no fault, it is tested on the computer.
Single Side PCB Scrap Treatment Technology
Printed circuit boards are made of glass fiber, epoxy resin, and a variety of metal compounds. If waste aluminum substrates are not properly disposed of, the brominated flame retardants and other carcinogens in them will cause serious damage to the environment and human health. . At the same time, waste circuit boards also have a high economic value. The metal grade in the circuit boards is equivalent to dozens of times the metal grade in ordinary minerals. The metal content is as high as 10~60%, and the most content is copper. Gold, silver, nickel, tin, lead, and other metals are rare metals, and the content of rich ore metals in nature is only 3~5%.
The report shows 1 ton of computer components contain an average of 0.9 kg of gold, 270 kg of plastic, 128.7 kg of copper, 1 kg of iron, 58.5 kg of lead, 39.6 kg of tin, 36 kg of nickel, 19.8 kg of antimony, as well as palladium, platinum, and other precious metals. It can be seen that waste circuit boards are also a “gold mine.” According to a circuit board fabrication disposal survey, in most parts of the country, the waste circuit boards and frame materials are transported to remote areas for treatment by incineration and washing methods, causing severe secondary problems.
The State Environmental Protection Administration has banned the incineration method because it produces a large amount of odorous and toxic bromine compounds, which seriously pollutes the atmosphere. However, in remote mountainous areas, incineration workshops occur.
The water washing method has been widely used due to its simple process and low investment. However, a large amount of waste residues, such as non-metallic substances (which account for about 80% of the weight of the aluminum substrate produced after washing), still cause great harm to the environment. It is difficult to treat or eliminate these waste residues. Most of the washing enterprises put the waste residue as domestic waste in landfills or handed over to the sanitation department for disposal.
Single Side PCB Application and Characteristics
The single-sided PCB is more and more widely used because it has many unique advantages; the summary is as follows.
High reliability – Through a series of inspections, tests, and aging tests, the PCB can work reliably for an extended period (usually 20 years).
Designability – For the various performance (electrical, physical, chemical, mechanical, etc.) requirements of the single panel, the printed board can be designed through design standardization in a short time and with high efficiency.
Producibility – With modern production management, it can be standardized, scaled (quantified), automated, etc., to ensure product quality consistency.
Testability – Complete test methods, standards, various test equipment, and instruments have been established to detect and appraise the eligibility and service life of the single PCB.
Assembled – The circuit board facilitates the standardized assembly of various components and enables automated and large-scale mass production. At the same time, circuit boards and various component assembly parts can be assembled to form larger parts and systems, up to the complete machine
Maintainability – Circuit boards and various component assembly parts are manufactured in standardized design and scale. If the system fails, it is convenient to replace components quickly; the system can be restored promptly with such flexibility. There are more examples, such as miniaturization and weight reduction of the system, and high-speed signal transmission.
Features of single PCB：
The so-called single-sided board is the most basic PCB, as all the parts are concentrated on one side, and the wires are all concentrated on the other side. Because the wires only appear on one side, we call this PCB a single-sided. Because there are many strict restrictions on the design of the single-sided board (there is only one side, and the wiring can not cross and must go around a separate path), it is generally not used in modern times, but it was used in the early days.
Single PCB wiring diagrams are mainly network printing. It is a resist printed on the copper surface, and the mark is printed with a solder mask after etching. Finally, the part’s guide hole and shape are completed by punching. In addition, some of the products that are produced in small quantities and diversified use photoresist forming patterns.
PCB single-sided proofing design process
First, we look at a picture:
Let’s take a look at what the design process looks like.
- Preparation part：
At the beginning of the PCB layout, you should first complete the schematic design and get the correct schematic. This is the basis of the single-sided PCB design. Through the schematic diagram, we can get a network table of the connection attributes of each device. According to the device’s parameters, we can find the relevant component information and establish the package of all components. It is also necessary for the structural part to cooperate to provide the size of the board frame, installation position, and the position of the function excuse.
- Specific operation part：
First, you need to import all the package files and netlists into the PCB file with the frame. Some component packaging errors may occur during the import process; please eliminate the errors according to the error prompts.
- Fixed structure related devices:
You have to fix devices such as LEDs, buttons, decks, liquid crystals, infrared transmitters, etc. Move these devices to the corresponding installation position, and select lock in the properties to prevent misoperation.
- Carry out a rough layout:
The purpose of the general layout is to determine the location of each functional module. In PCB design, the default is generally:
- Except for the devices that need to be mounted on the surface, all SMD devices are placed on one side of the plug-in device, which is generally the bottom layer.
- The metering unit is placed in the lower-left corner for easy access.
- Place the MCU on the back of the LCD, and make the leads short enough.
- The interface part is placed in the lower-right corner of the PCB for an easy cable outlet.
- Keep the transformer away from transformers and manganin shunts that are sensitive to magnetic leakage.
- Keep enough creepage distance between circuits that need to be isolated.
- Perform partial layout:
Complete the placement of the corresponding devices for each functional module. The factors that need to be considered in the local layout are:
- The crystal oscillator should be as close as possible to the crystal oscillator pin, and the trace should be as short as possible.
- The decoupling capacitor should be as close as possible to the power input pin of the IC.
- Devices with high-speed connections between ICs should be as close as possible.
- It is necessary to consider the convenience of maintenance and optimize the placement of some devices to avoid production difficulties.
- Leave a certain board margin, which should be 4mm or more. Otherwise, it is easy to cause accidental damage to the pick-up head during patching in the SMT workshop, causing the device to collide with the chain during wave soldering. It is impossible to use wave soldering at one time. To complete the plug-in welding, more stations need to be arranged to repair welding
- Varistors, polyester capacitors, transient suppression diodes,voltage regulator tubes, and filter capacitors should be placed in the device’s front end to be protected.
- Pay attention to the distance between high voltage and low voltage signals.
- Wiring of components
The wiring of components is also a critical process. You need to pay attention to the following aspects when wiring:
- Knowing the magnitude of the current that each device may flow and the maximum inrush current, you can roughly understand the possible impact of the signal carried on the trace on other signalsto set the wire thickness.
- The wiring of the high-voltage signal to the varistor and the polyester capacitor should be as wide as possible. This is so that the protection device can release the overload energy in time and preventthe line from being burned by the instantaneous high current.
- The low-voltage power supply signal main circuit line uses 36mil to reduce the wire resistance, and the width of 24mil or less can be used near the chip.
- The small-signal connection can be 10mil or 12mil. Too thin will cause the scrap rate to be too high, andtoo thick is meaningless.
- Do not route wires near high-frequency signals, such as the bottom of a crystal oscillator.
- Minimize the connection of vias. The quality of the wiring directly affects the performance of the PCB. In actual wiring, it may need to be overthrown and restartedor even return to the schematic diagram to modify the IO port definition. This is the most time-consuming part.
- Align the power cord:
- The power cord’s wiringshould be of sufficient width to avoid sudden changes in line width and right-angle corners. Also, the power cord cannot be formed into a loop.
- Floor treatment:
- A large ground plane is formed, which is equivalent to completing the wiring of the ground wire.
- Adjustment of device layout:
- When adjusting, prevent the large piece of ground from being connected to the main ground only through a few vias. Pay attention to the integrity of the floor under the chip. You can also better observe the appearance of wiring and device placementand whether the return loop of each signal is complete. In this step, complete the adjustment and modification of all device labels, and mark the company logo and PCB version number.
- Check the drawing specifications of all PCB boards:
- Also,point out the error and highlight the error.
- Export PCB:
- The export format is Protel PCB 2.8 ASCII File.
- Send out proofing.
How to DIY a Single-Layer PCB ?
The project is a self-made PCB to improve the anti-interference ability of the circuit. The following process can produce a high-precision PCB with a line width of 10 mils and a pitch of 8 mils that can be welded with 64-pin SMD packages with MSP430 chips. The probability of wire breakage is relatively small.
Tools and materials used
Altium Designer + home laser printer + thermal transfer machine + homemade PCB special corrosion tank + blue environmentally friendly corrosive + laser toner remover + small hand drill + glass fiber copper-clad laminate (or bakelite copper-clad laminate).
Draw PCB (using Altium Designer)
1.1000mil = 1 inch = 2.54cm, the hole spacing of the universal board is 2.54mm = 0.1 inch = 100 mil.
- Use SMD components as much as possible to reduce drilling issues.
- SMD components and wiring are on the same side, and in-line components are installed on the other side.
- After the PCB is created, it is difficult to modify at will like a universal board, so the test points should be reserved appropriately.
- PCB rules (Rules) reference value:
Track Width> 15mil (10 mil may be broken during transfer).
Clearance> 10 mil, preferably set to 30 mil or more. The distance that is too small will be difficult to weld.
Pad: The aperture is set to 20mil, and drilling is required later (after setting 20mil to be corroded, it is more convenient for the drill bit to be positioned when drilling). Diameter>80mil, the larger the diameter, the easier drilling will be later (if the outer diameter is too small, the drill will be slightly offset. The ring pad will be disconnected, which will cause the soldering to be unstable and the pad to fall off more easily). For common pins such as ICs and transistors with an interval of 100 mils, if the pad diameter is greater than 100 mils, adjacent pads will be connected, so it can generally be set to 85 mils.
Copper-clad Plane -> Polygon Connect: Relif Connect, Conductor width> 20 mil, Airgap width = 15 mil.
The PCB substrate is set according to the actual size of the copper-clad laminate. Generally, a single layer is used. If you make a double-layer board, it is relatively difficult to align the two sides.
Delete unnecessary layers: When printing, only the Top Layer or Bottom Layer layer is printed, and the other layers are deleted.
If it is TopLayer, you should check Mirror.
The pad is printed as a hole (check Hole), so the later drilling will be better positioned.
The color is set to pure black, and the print mode is set to monochrome (Color Set: Mono).
Print size: ScalePrint 1.0, not Fit Document.
Turn off the printer’s ink-saving mode. See the printer manual for specific methods.
In order to prevent paper jams when directly inserting the thermal transfer paper, cut a piece of thermal transfer paper and stick it on ordinary A4 paper before printing, and print on the smooth side of the thermal transfer paper. After printing, wait until the thermal transfer paper has cooled down before the toner is completely fixed and transfer is performed.
The heat transfer machine needs to be preheated 5 minutes in advance and set to about 180°C.
The copper-clad laminate is polished with sandpaper first, and then the invisible oil stains on the surface are cleaned with washing powder. After cleaning, do not touch it with your hands and let it dry naturally (it is better not to wipe with paper).
Cut the printed thermal transfer paper into a suitable size, and fix it on the copper-clad laminate with heat-resistant paper tape.
Put it into the heat transfer machine; heat transfer about five times. Slowly peel off the heat transfer paper from one side. If the transfer is not acceptable, you can cover it and transfer it several times; if there is a small amount of broken lines, you can use a thin marker to draw on it (do not use an oily marker to smear a large area and it will be difficult to clean up later).
The copper-clad laminate should be completely cooled before it corrodes. Otherwise, it is easy to drop ink.
Fill the etching tank with etchant solution, turn on the heating rod, and heat the etching solution until the temperature reaches about 50 degrees; do not exceed more than 60 degrees. Put the completely cooled CCL into the corrosive solution. Turn on the air pump and let in air to accelerate the reaction. The color change is seen where there is no ink, the copper foil is corroded, and the substrate is exposed. When the ink is not corroded, it can be taken out. If it is left for too long, the ink area may start from the edge and slowly be eroded. 5. Remove the ink and clean it with a brush dipped in alcohol or laser toner remover, brush off the toner, and then clean with water.
Use an electric drill to make holes. Generally, use a drill with a diameter of about 0.6mm for the pins. Be careful as the drill can break. A saw can also be used for cutting.