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The Essential Guide to Choosing the Right Simple Circuit Components

The Electric Circuit is like a closed loop that allows electricity to flow through it using magnetic and electric fields. These electrons start flowing from a source such as a battery or a generator, which gives them the energy to move through the circuit. The source creates the electrical field that makes this possible.

When the electrons travel through the circuit and reach the end, they leave the circuit and enter the ground. It completes the circuit and allows electricity to flow continuously. The endpoint where the electrons leave the circuit is the “load” or “output.” The load is simple such as a TV or lamp in a home. 

A basic electric circuit has three main parts: a battery, wires to carry the electricity, and something to use the electricity called a load. For example, a light bulb can be the load. The battery is the source of the electricity and gives the energy for the electricity to flow through the wires and into a light bulb. 

Use of Simple circuit components

Microcomputers are tiny computers that manage power tools, medical equipment, and remote controls. Batteries transform chemicals into electricity. There are two parts to a battery; one called anode (+) and the other called cathode (-). 

Fuses are like protectors that protect electronic parts from getting too much electricity. They comprise different parts, such as a body, support, contacts, and a special metal material such as Zinc/copper. Circuit breakers also protect electronics by stopping too much electricity from flowing through them. You can control them with a switch, and they are useful to prevent overloading or short circuits in the circuit.

Switches stop the flow of electricity. There are four switches: SPST, SPDT, DPST, and DPDT. 

Besides, relays are like switches that can turn the electricity on /off. They have a special magnet, a part that moves (called an armature), some electrical parts that touch each other, and a spring to make it work. 

Motors are machines that change electricity into movement. They have different parts, like a spinning part (called the rotor), a still part (called the stator), some pieces that help it turn, a box around it, and a hook to hold it. Motors can make all kinds of things move, such as watches, TVs, and cars. 

Active and passive Simple circuit components


There are two types of electrical parts: active and passive. Transistors are an example of an active part, while resistors, inductors, transformers, and capacitors are passive parts. Transformers are often useful in changing the power level. Resistors slow down the flow of electricity and can be useful in temperature sensors or controls. Capacitors work as small batteries and can help make circuits pause. Inductors help control how fast electrical signals move.

When making electric circuits, you’ll use some simple electronic parts. These include resistors, capacitors, diodes, inductors, transistors & integrated circuits. Here is a quick summary of each part and what it does.

  1. Resistors: A resistor is a part of the integrated circuit. It does what its name says – it slows down the flow of electricity. Moreover, Rate the resistors by how much power they can handle without breaking and how well they resist electricity. Measure in ohms and the symbol for ohms is “Ω.” 
  2. Capacitors: Some things can hold an electric charge quickly. These are components, and there are different types, but the most common ones are ceramic and electrolytic disks. The amount of charge a component is unit microfarads ( µF). 
  3. Diodes: Diodes are like a gate that only allows current to move in one direction. They have two parts called the anode & cathode. Besides, if you charge the anode with + voltage & cathode with – voltage, the current will flow. But if you switch the voltages around, the current won’t flow.
  4. Transistors: You can recognize these components because they have three parts sticking out. To make them work, you need to apply voltage to one part called the base. Then, the base can control how much electricity flows through the other two parts (called the emitter & collector). 
  5. Inductors: These things are called inductors, which can hold energy using a magnetic field. An inductor is just a coil winding around something, such as a magnet or just air. When the electricity goes through the wire, a Magnetic flux is around it. If there’s a magnet in the middle, the magnetic field is even stronger. 
  6. Integrated Circuits: It is a special thing with all the pieces needed for an electric circuit. It has transistors, diodes, and other stuff made of really small silicon. People use these things in many electronic devices, such as watches & computers.
  7. Microcontrollers: Microcontrollers are tiny computers that can control many things, such as power tools, medical equipment, remote controls & office machines.
  8. Transformers: Transformers are made with two winding coils and are often used to increase or decrease power
  9. Batteries: Batteries change chemical energy into electrical energy. A battery has two parts called cells; one is the anode (+), and the other is the cathode (-). 
  10. Fuses: Fuses protect electronic parts from too much electrical current. A fuse comprises a body, contacts, support & metal-fuse substance like zinc/copper. 
  11. Relays: Electromechanical switches turn the electricity off or on. A relay has an electromagnet, springs, and electrical contacts.
  12. Switches: Switches stop the flow of electricity. There are four switches such as SPST, SPDT, DPST, and DPDT.
  13. Motors: Motors change electrical energy into movement energy. Important parts of a motor are the rotor, stator, bearings, enclosure, conduit box & eye bolt.
  14. Circuit Breakers: They can be turned on or off with a Remote control switch. It protects a circuit from getting too much electricity or a short circuit.  

Types of Simple circuit components

There are various kinds of electronic circuits, each with benefits and purposes. One way to tell them apart is through the current flow, such as with DC and AC circuits.

· DC Circuits

A direct current (DC) circuit has electricity flowing in only one direction. It’s often useful for low-voltage things and is powered by a battery. An example of a DC circuit is a simple one with a switch, a lightbulb, and a battery. 

Direct current (DC) circuits can also be grouped into two kinds based on how the parts are linked. These are called parallel & series circuits. Let’s talk about parallel circuits.

In a parallel circuit, the electricity can flow through multiple paths. The electrical connections we use in homes and businesses are usually set up this way. If one part of the circuit gets disconnected, the others can still work. 

When we connect different things, like light bulbs/ resistors, in a parallel circuit, they all get the same amount of electricity. Because there are multiple paths for the electricity to flow, the electricity in the electric circuit is the total of all the individual amounts going through each thing.

· Series Circuit

It has only one path for the electricity to flow. The parts of the circuit are connected one after the other. Because there’s only one direction, the same electricity goes through each part (like light bulbs or resistors). The electricity in the electric circuit is the total of all the individual amounts going through each part. 

Water freezers, heaters & refrigerators use a series of electric circuits to manage their temperature. When they reach the right temperature, the circuit opens up by itself and stops the electricity from flowing. 

An AC circuit means the electricity changes direction back and forth over and over again. This change in direction makes the voltage go up and down too. For example, if the electricity is changing 120 times/second, a fluorescent light would flicker that same number of times. It happens so fast that it’s hard for our eyes to see.

AC circuits are used to distribute power, which is why most homes and businesses use them. The electricity is made at big power plants, then sent over long distances to reach where people like you and me need it. To minimize power losses, electricity is transmitted from power stations at high voltages and then reduced to lower voltages when it reaches homes and businesses. It’s easier to increase & decrease voltages in Alternating current circuits than in Direct current circuits; that’s why Alternating current is usually useful for big power distributions.

Simple components of Electric Circuit

Shelf Life of Electronic Components

Electric circuits are of three main components. First, a voltage source provides the electrical energy for the circuit. Second, a load is a device or component that uses electrical energy to perform a task. And third, a conduction pathway, which is the path the electrical energy takes to travel from the voltage source to the load.

  • The voltage source is part of an electrical circuit that gives energy to the circuit. It creates a difference in electric charge so that the charges can move. Its examples include batteries and generators. 
  • The load in the electric circuit refers to an electrical device that consumes or uses energy. For example, it could be a device such as a light bulb, a motor, or a resistor.
  • A conduction pathway is a route that allows electric current to move from the voltage source to the load. It comprises conductors such as wires, cables, or metal tracks on a circuit board. The conductive pathway connects all the components of a circuit and allows the current to flow continuously. 

Most electronic circuits have a switch that can turn the circuit on or off easily. Other simple electrical parts commonly used are capacitors, resistors & inductors.

Short circuit & an open circuit

· Short Circuit

When two conductors in the electronic circuit are each other with very little or no resistance, it’s a short electric circuit. It can cause more heat, which can lead to flames, sparks, or smoke. 

A short electric circuit can happen when wires are not connected well, insulation is bad, animals chew on wires, or appliances are too old. To avoid damage from a short circuit, people often use fuses or circuit breakers, which are very helpful.

· Open Circuit

When there is an interruption in an electrical circuit, it’s an open electric circuit. It happens when a part of the circuit is not connected properly. Even though there is some voltage in an open electric circuit, no current flows through it.

· Circuit Protection

When people intentionally put a weak part in an electronic circuit to protect it from damage, it’s circuit protection. The goal is to prevent harm from things such as short circuits, high temperatures, or other types of damage.

A device that can protect a circuit is circuit protection equipment. Some examples of circuit protection devices are fuses, circuit breakers, thyristors, and switches.

Frequently Asked Questions – FAQs

What Are Simple Circuit Components?

active and passive components

Electric or electronic circuits are like a path or network of electrical elements where electrons can move. The place where the electrons begin moving is the source, and where they leave the circuit is the return.

How many types of circuits are in industry?

There are two main kinds of circuits: series circuits & parallel circuits.

What is a series circuit?

A series electric circuit is when many resistors are connected, like a chain. It is an end-to-end or cascade connection. So there is only one path for the electric current to flow through.

What are complex circuits?

Circuits that have elements both in series and in parallel are complex circuits. To understand how a complex (complicated) circuit works, we can study parallel and series circuits together.




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