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50+ Simple electronic circuits projects for beginners

Introduction

Electronic circuits are the backbone of all modern technology. From smartphones to appliances, vehicles to computers – electronic circuits power our daily lives. For those interested in electronics, building circuits is an engaging hobby that allows you to learn hands-on how different components work together.

In this guide, we will provide an overview of 50+ simple electronic circuit projects perfect for beginners and hobbyists. These projects require affordable and readily available components that can be easily assembled at home with basic tools. We have included schematics, step-by-step building instructions, explanations of how the circuits work, and tips to customize the projects. Read on to learn how to build LED flashlights, radios, timers, alarms, games, and more!

Getting Started with Electronics Projects

Before jumping into the projects, let’s go over some key information for electronics beginners.

Basic Components

Here are some of the most common components you’ll work with for basic circuits:

  • Resistors – Limits current flow. Measured in ohms.
  • Capacitors – Stores electric charge. Measured in farads.
  • Transistors – Amplifies current. Common types are NPN and PNP.
  • Diodes – Allows current flow in one direction. LEDs are a type of diode.
  • Integrated Circuits – Contain multiple mini circuits. Common examples are 555 timers, amplifiers, microcontrollers.

You’ll also need things like wires, batteries, switches, etc. to connect and control the components.

Helpful Tools

You don’t need much equipment to get started with electronics. Here are some affordable tools to have on hand:

  • Soldering iron – Melts solder to connect component leads. A 15-25W iron should suffice for basic projects.
  • Solder and soldering accessories – Rosin core solder intended for electronics use. Helpful items include solder wick, flux, and stand.
  • Wire cutters and strippers – For cutting and stripping wire insulation.
  • Multimeter – Measures voltage, current, resistance, and continuity. An inexpensive digital model is fine.
  • Safety items – Such as goggles, vise, alligator clips, etc.

Nice-to-have tools include things like an oscilloscope, adjustable bench power supply, and a well-lit magnifying glass.

Schematics

Electronic schematics visually represent how a circuit should be wired. Here are some common symbols used:

SymbolMeaning
Resistor
Capacitor
NPN Transistor
Diode
Ground
Integrated Circuit

Keep these in mind as you follow schematics for the projects below.

Simple LED Circuits

Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are ideal components for simple electronics projects. They provide visual feedback that a circuit is functioning and can be configured into all kinds of displays. Here are some basic LED circuit ideas to get you started.

Blinking LED

This circuit flashes an LED on and off using a 555 timer chip configured as an oscillator. The rate of blinking can be adjusted with the variable resistor.

Components

  • 555 timer IC
  • 10uF capacitor
  • 1K ohm resistor
  • 10K ohm variable resistor
  • Red LED
  • Breadboard
  • 9V battery and clip

Schematic

Steps

  1. Insert 555 timer chip into breadboard. Connect pin 1 to ground, pin 8 to positive voltage.
  2. Install capacitor between pins 2 and 6 of 555.
  3. Connect resistor from pin 7 to positive voltage.
  4. Connect variable resistor from pin 7 to ground.
  5. Connect anode of LED to pin 3 of 555 using a wire. Connect cathode to ground.
  6. Power the circuit by connecting 9V battery clip to breadboard positive and ground rails.
  7. Experiment with varying the resistance to change blink rate.

This versatile chip can also be reconfigured into other oscillators like a pulse generator or astable multivibrator for different LED effects.

LED Flasher

This simple transistor circuit flashes an LED using a pushbutton as the power switch. It’s a fun interactive way to learn how NPN transistors work as switches.

Components

  • 2N2222 NPN transistor
  • 10K ohm resistor
  • Red LED
  • Pushbutton switch
  • Breadboard
  • 9V battery and clip

Schematic

Steps

  1. Insert NPN transistor into breadboard. Connect emitter pin to ground.
  2. Connect LED cathode to transistor collector. Connect LED anode to positive voltage through resistor.
  3. Connect transistor base to one lead of pushbutton through a wire. Connect other pushbutton lead to positive voltage.
  4. Install 9V battery clip to provide power.
  5. Pressing the button will complete the circuit and flash the LED. Releasing turns it off.

Experiment with different resistor values to see the impact on LED brightness.

LED Chase Sequence

This circuit uses a 4017 decade counter IC to create a chase sequence effect with a series of LEDs. It’s a fun LED animation you can expand.

Components

  • 4017 decade counter IC
  • 555 timer IC
  • 10K ohm resistors (8x)
  • 10uF capacitor
  • Red LEDs (8x)
  • Breadboard
  • 9V battery and clip

Schematic

Steps

  1. Insert both ICs into the breadboard. Connect pin 5 of 4017 to ground and pin 16 to positive voltage.
  2. For 555, connect pin 1 to ground and pin 8 to positive. Install capacitor between pins 2 and 6.
  3. Connect 555 pin 3 to 4017 pin 1 to provide the clock signal.
  4. Install LEDs with their anode to pins 3-10 of 4017. Connect each cathode to positive voltage through a resistor.
  5. Provide power to the circuit. The LEDs will now flash in sequence.

You can expand this with more LEDs using multiple 4017 chips.

Simple Battery Circuits

Battery Circuit Diagrams
Battery Circuit Diagrams

Learning how batteries supply power to circuits is an essential electronics lesson. Here are some basic battery-powered projects to build your knowledge.

Battery Voltage Tester

This handy circuit lets you visually check the charge level of AA or AAA batteries. The circuit draws a small test load current to light LEDs based on the remaining battery voltage.

Components

  • 3 1K ohm resistors
  • Red LED
  • Yellow LED
  • Green LED
  • Breadboard
  • AA or AAA battery holder

Schematic

Steps

  1. Insert battery pack into breadboard positive and ground rails.
  2. Wire red LED to positive voltage through a 1K resistor.
  3. Connect yellow LED and another 1K resistor in series to the red LED cathode (negative leg).
  4. Connect green LED and another 1K resistor in series to the yellow LED cathode.
  5. Test battery connects to the open end of the 3 LED branches.
  6. A fresh battery will light all 3 LEDs. Weaker batteries will light fewer LEDs.

Modify resistor values to change the threshold voltages for each LED.

LED Battery Level Indicator

This is a more advanced battery tester circuit. It uses a specialized IC to precisely measure battery voltage and light a series of LEDs as a visual bar graph indicator.

Components

  • LM3914 dot/bar display driver IC
  • 3 1K ohm resistors
  • Red LEDs (3x)
  • Breadboard
  • 9V battery and clip

Schematic

Steps

  1. Insert LM3914 IC on breadboard. Connect pin 1 to ground and pin 18 to positive voltage.
  2. Install 3 red LEDs in series with 1K resistors between pins 3, 5, 7 and positive voltage.
  3. Connect pin 9 to positive through a wire to enable bar mode.
  4. Attach 9V battery clip to rails to power circuit.
  5. The LEDs will indicate the battery voltage level like a bar graph display.

This circuit can be expanded to monitor higher voltage packs with more LEDs.

LED Tea Light

This cute project lights up an LED inside a plastic tea light housing using button cell batteries. It’s a simple circuit you can build into various enclosures.

Components

  • CR2032 button cell battery holder (2x)
  • White LED
  • Clear tea light and base
  • Hook-up wire

Schematic

Steps

  1. Solder the button batteries in series into the holder. Make sure to match the polarity marks.
  2. Solder the LED onto short wires, with correct polarity.
  3. Solder the battery holder and LED wires together.
  4. Test the circuit by pressing the button. The LED should light up.
  5. Place the circuit inside the tea light base.
  6. Put the plastic tea light cover on top to complete the project.

This is a good starter soldering project before moving to more complex circuits.

Timer Circuits

Timers allow circuits to automatically switch on and off or perform actions after set durations. Here are some timer circuit designs to try out:

555 Timer

This circuit uses the versatile 555 chip in monostable mode to function as an adjustable timer. When triggered, it generates a timed output pulse to flash an LED.

Components

  • 555 timer IC
  • 1uF capacitor
  • 10K ohm resistor
  • Red LED
  • Momentary pushbutton
  • Breadboard
  • 9V battery and clip

Schematic

Steps

  1. Build the circuit as shown in the schematic on a breadboard.
  2. Install a jumper wire to connect pin 2 and pin 6 together. This resets the circuit each time.
  3. Press the pushbutton to generate a timed pulse that flashes the LED.
  4. Use different resistor values to experiment with the pulse length.

555 timers have tons of applications for sequencing logic, clocks, and more.

Dark Activated Relay

This circuit turns on a relay after sunset using an LDR photocell to detect darkness. It can turn on lights, motors, or other higher power devices.

Components

  • 1 megaohm resistor
  • 10K ohm resistor
  • LDR photocell
  • 2N2222 NPN transistor
  • TIP120 darlington transistor
  • Diode 1N4001
  • Relay coil
  • Breadboard
  • 9V battery and clip

Schematic

Steps

  1. Build circuit by following schematic. The photocell and 1M resistor act as a voltage divider.
  2. At sunset, the photocell resistance rises, increasing the voltage to the transistors.
  3. The transistors activate the relay coil, which can switch any connected device.
  4. Add diode across relay coil to protect transistor from back EMF when relay turns off.

This circuit could automate lights, fountains, Halloween props, and other nighttime gadgets.

Alarm and Sensor Circuits

Alarms provide alerts when a specific condition is sensed in a circuit. Here are some alarm and sensor circuits you can build:

LED Light Sensor Alarm

This circuit sounds a piezo buzzer when an LDR sensor detects light, like from a flashlight. It’s great for intruder alarms, beam break alarms, and experiments.

Components

  • LDR light sensor
  • 1M ohm resistor
  • 1K ohm resistor
  • 2N2222 NPN transistor
  • Piezo buzzer
  • Red LED
  • Breadboard
  • 9V battery and clip

Schematic

Steps:

  1. Build circuit as shown. The LDR and 1M resistor act as a voltage divider.
  2. In darkness, transistor stays off. When light shines on LDR, its resistance falls, turning on transistor.
  3. Transistor supplies current to piezo buzzer and LED, generating an audible and visible alarm.
  4. Adjust resistor values to modify the LDR light trigger threshold.

This circuit can be used to create laser trip beams, hand shadows, and other projects.

LM358 Motion Detector

This circuit uses an LM358 op amp to detect motion using the dual amplified signals from two IR sensors. Great for alarms and motion-activated lights.

Components

  • LM358 dual op amp IC
  • 2 IR transmitter/receiver pairs
  • 2 100K ohm resistors
  • 1M ohm resistor
  • 10K ohm resistor
  • Red LED
  • Breadboard
  • 9V battery and clip

Schematic

Steps:

  1. Build circuit as per schematic. The op amp amplifies the difference between the two IR sensors.
  2. When motion passes, the op amp detects difference in IR beams and triggers output.
  3. Op amp outputs to transistor and LED. Can be modified to drive a buzzer, relay, etc.
  4. Adjust component values to tune detection threshold and sensitivity.

Great circuit to learn op amps. Can create security systems, toy cars, and more.

Transmitter and Receiver Circuits

RF Transmitter PCBA
RF Transmitter PCBA

Want to make wireless projects? These transmitter/receiver circuits allow two circuits to communicate over the air by modulating electromagnetic waves.

AM Radio Transmitter

This circuit uses your voice to modulate an AM radio signal. The modulated signal is transmitted and can be picked up by an AM radio receiver up to a few feet away.

Components

  • 1K ohm resistor
  • 10K ohm variable resistor
  • 100uF capacitor
  • 2N2222 NPN transistor
  • Enameled copper wire (~6ft)
  • 9V battery and clip
  • AM radio for testing

Schematic

Steps:

  1. Follow schematic to build circuit on a breadboard or prototype board.
  2. The 2N2222 oscillator generates the carrier signal at your desired AM frequency.
  3. Voice into microphone modulates oscillator, then radiated by antenna.
  4. Tune AM radio nearby to the oscillator’s frequency to pick up your voice.
  5. Adjust components for best signal transmission and audio clarity.

This teaches the basics of AM modulation and antennas at a simple level.

Infrared Remote Control

This wireless circuit allows you to control a buzzer with an IR remote control, like from a TV or stereo. Useful for making wireless gizmos.

Components

  • TSOP38238 IR receiver
  • BC547 NPN transistor
  • Piezo buzzer
  • Breadboard
  • IR remote
  • 3V battery and clip

What is an Electronic Circuit?

Electronic circuits usually entail several components. We can arrange the components in layers and different ways. A simple electronic circuit is where the electron emitter does not need a connection to a power source. Instead, the electrons flow through it without receiving any electricity from outside. An electronic circuit is simply a path for electrons to flow through.

Electrical conductors have materials that allow electricity to flow through them. For example, copper wire conducts electricity very well – we use it commonly in our homes, gadgets, and projects! Substances that don’t conduct electricity are known as insulators, and they don’t let charges flow through them. They include things like air or rubber – these substances have no charge carriers; therefore, we cannot use them to make an electrical circuit.

We measure the electrical conductivity in terms of resistance, the opposition that a material encounters when pushed or pulled through. When electrons travel through a conductor, they encounter little to no resistance. It means that they travel very quickly and easily. However, if you try to push them through something like air – they will be slowed down! This leads to the concept of resistivity. A substance that moves through a circuit quickly and easily has a high resistance, whereas something that doesn’t move very well has a low resistance.

Electric Field

Electrons are generally moved through circuits prototype by way of electric fields. These are the invisible forces at work in our world. Like magnets, they cause molecules and atoms to move around.

The field that moves electrons inside a conductor is called an electric field. It is generated by the movement of charge carriers (also known as electrons) through the conductor – for example, when you plug a cable into an adapter or power supply.

The electrons that make up an electric field act as if they were tiny magnets. They act opposite to the force of the electric field, pushing or pulling the atoms around them to try and keep moving. This results in motion, like a motor that’s spinning – rotating and spinning until you turn it off.

The more charge carriers (electrons) present inside a circuit, the stronger the electric field becomes.

What Parts Do We Use to Build Circuits?

electronic circuits projects

We use a few different types of parts to build electronics circuits! These include resistors, capacitors, inductors, and diodes. They are the most common parts we’ll use in this course. Let’s look at each one.

Resistors

Resistors are the most common type of component in electronics. They usually comprise a metal (such as copper, aluminum, or even silver), and they act as a way of reducing the flow of electrons through the circuit.

We use resistors in our electronics projects, and we attribute their broad use to their low cost. For example, when you take a look at your phone, in addition to transmitting data and sound, it uses a lot of power! Sometimes we need to reduce the flow of this power – for example, when we plug a phone into an adapter. One can set a resistor across the precise voltage (usually 120 volts) going into the adapter to reduce the amount of power in supply. It helps us to reduce the risk of electrical shock.

Resistors come in a wide range of values and colors. You might remember from using other electronics kits that resistors have a color code placed on them. The color codes help you to easily tell the value of the resistor. For example, if you had an orange-red resistor, you could easily tell its value because it falls between orange (2.2k) and red (3.3k). This is the color code’s way of telling you that the resistor is orange-red (1.5k).

Capacitors

A capacitor is a glass, ceramic, or even plastic component that stores energy in the form of an electric field. It allows current to pass through it very easily. When a capacitor’s terminals are in a connection, the capacitor charges up! This means that there is a short circuit between the two terminals. Imagine storing electricity in a bottle that you could open whenever you need it. This is what capacitors do.

Capacitors are present in many devices, from radios and speakers to electric cars and TVs. Capacitors are energy buffers to absorb over-voltage surges (sudden large increases in current). They also improve the audio quality of your gadgets.

You can think about a capacitor as a kind of battery that you can charge up very easily – take a look at the diagram below for clarification!

Electrons inside a capacitor move very slowly and stay put. Unfortunately, you can’t get them to move and leave the capacitor, so it’s up to the current to flow through the capacitor.

A practical example

Imagine you have a box full of oranges. You can’t get the oranges to leave the box, and they won’t move while they are there. You can take them out of the box to eat them, but you have to do something first – you need to squeeze the box! We refer to the moving of a capacitor as charging. Capacitors charge up as current flows through them, and when a capacitor is fully charged, it has no electricity flowing through it – just like an unopened orange!

We make capacitors with two metal plates in between. This acts as a kind of electrical circuit, which helps to store charge. You’ll remember from other circuits that we can connect these crops in parallel – in which case you have more than one capacitor acting together.

A capacitor stores energy (in the form of an electric field) so that when you want to move current through it, you don’t need to do it all at once. Instead, you can make small amounts of current flow repeatedly.

Because a capacitor stores charge, we can use it to repeatedly make small amounts of current flow. This means that we can repeat our circuit over and over multiple times to repeat the same pattern.

Inductors

Inductors are another component that helps create a kind of current. An inductor is an electrical component that stores energy. It’s like a big barrel full of copper wire. This is how an inductor stores energy over time – you can think of it as having lots of tiny barrels instead of just one big one. Like capacitors, we can use inductors to change electrical energy into something else over time.

An inductor is an electrical component with a magnetic field. When current flows through an inductor, it generates a magnetic field and causes electrons to move. The amount of current required to do this is called the inductance of the coil.

You can make an inductor from an electromagnet. This is a coil of wire with a current flowing through it – there is the creation of electric magnetism as a result of this flow.

In most electronic circuits, you’ll see that inductors have a higher value than resistors do (you can tell the values by looking at the color code). This is because an inductor can store a larger amount of energy than capacitors, which means they’re useful for storing and supplying charge over time. An inductor’s resistance to current changes depending on the voltage and the current going through it. We call this inductive reactance.

Functions

Imagine you have a bicycle wheel, but instead of having a tire on it, you have a magnet! Electrons will be forced around in a circle – this means that an alternating current (AC) will create an alternating magnetic field (AMF). That’s what an inductor does!

An inductor is when electrons are forced around in a circle. Think about it like a bicycle wheel with a magnet on its outside – this creates a magnetic field around it. If you were to put something through that wheel, you’d see that the wheel would take some energy from that object and use it to move.

Inductive reactance is an important part of electronics because we need inductors for things like motors! It’s also useful for improving audio quality in speakers.

You can use an inductor to store electrical charge over time. If a capacitor was to charge up, it would over-charge and burst – but an inductor doesn’t have this problem!

Most inductors are made from coils of wire. But some have more complicated structures – for example, coils with multiple layers. This can be useful if you need to design a very specific type of inductor.

A coiled inductor can be useful for filtering fast signals like those you find in analogue signal processing. It can also serve as a kind of microphone or loudspeaker.

An inductor stores electrical energy. This means that if you want to make an inductor, you need to get energy in the first place!

Resistors and Capacitors and Inductors? Oh my!

It’s full of useful electrical components! We’re sure that you’ve noticed these kinds of things in your everyday gadgets – but how do they all fit together? And why do they work?

Capacitors and Inductors are both components that provide electrical regulation – like resistors. But what is it that the other components do? How can they all fit together in such a complicated way?

Diodes

An LED is a kind of diode. It’s a semi-conductor found in LEDs and solar cells, among other devices.

A diode is a solid-state device with just two different types of terminals. The most common type of diode is the voltage-regulating diode. In these diodes, the anode (-) and cathode (+) terminals useful for controlling the direction of current flow (you’ll find more detail about current later). This type of diode regulates the power going through a circuit.

When current flows through a diode, it creates an electromotive force (EMF). This means that electrons move very quickly in one direction. This is why a diode looks like it’s got ‘wings.’ The faster that electrons flow through a diode, the more easily they can move. It’s the difference between going fast or going slow.

Diode geometry

When current flows through a diode, it creates an electromotive force. This is why diodes look like they have wings! The faster electrons flow through a diode, the more easily they move. It’s the difference between going fast or going slow. Also, as current passes from one side to another, it creates a magnetic field, which causes electrons to move.

When current flows through a diode, it creates an electromotive force. This means that electrons move very quickly in one direction. What causes those electrons to move is the effect of the magnetism of the wire. This means that diodes can help to control the direction of current flow.

Types of Electronic Circuit

You know that the Earth is a big magnet – and you know that electrons are magnetic. But what does this have to do with electronics? All of our electronic components have magnets. How do these work?

Let’s think about a circuit for a moment. The purpose of a circuit is to take energy and change it into other forms of energy or store the energy flowing through the circuit. So how do we control this energy?

All simple electronic circuits contain a power source. This is usually a battery – but you may also find it in your computer or some types of small power supply. For electricity to flow through your circuit, you need two things: voltage and current.

Voltage

Voltage is like pressure. It’s the force that causes current to flow through a circuit. The more voltage you have, the more likely it is that the current will flow through your circuit. For voltage to work properly, there has to be some resistance in a circuit – otherwise, the current would flow so quickly that the device simply wouldn’t work. We measure Voltage in volts (V) and electron volts (eV). Therefore, voltage should be under control.

Current

We’ve talked about current in electronic circuits before. It’s the flow of electrons that causes energy to move around a circuit – this is what keeps your computer going! What gives it the ability to do this is the resistance of the components in your circuit. Usually, you’ll find resistors in a circuit. We measure current in amperes (A) and milliamperes (mA). It is possible to control Current.

Resistance

Resistance is the amount of voltage that a component can handle. You’ll hear people say things like: ‘that battery has a high resistance.’ This means that the energy from the battery won’t last as long, but it won’t blow up. We measure Resistance in ohms (Ω) and kilohms (kΩ). A resistor helps to control current flow.

Electromotive Force (EMF)

This is the power that causes the current to flow. We measure EMF in volts (V). The faster electrons move through a diode, the more easily they can flow. Electromotive Force is what causes electron flow in a circuit.

Type 1: Closed Circuit

In a closed circuit, electrons flow around the closed-loop.

A closed-circuit has two terminals, and there is always a complete path for current to flow around the entire circuit. In addition, you will see that all of the components in this type of circuit have a series connection – this means that we connect each component to its neighbor with no gaps in between.

Type 2: Open Circuit

An open circuit has one terminal, and you can’t predict how the current will flow around it. There is a break in the wire loop – the circuit is not complete. If you see an open circuit symbol, it means that there’s no connection between the two terminals. This kind of circuit isn’t wired up, so the current cannot run through it.

Type 3: Series Circuit

A series circuit has only one current path; each component feeds into the next in line.

In a series circuit, there is interconnection of all the components. Current always follows the same path around all the components (connected in series) – you’ll see this if you look very closely at a circuit diagram. The electrons go from one end to another and back again, creating a loop.

If you look very closely at a circuit diagram, you can see how all the components are in series. The electrThis is because the go from one end to another and back again, creating a loop. Current will have to flow through each component in this loop before making it back to the start – or starting another loop.

Type 4: Parallel Circuit

A parallel circuit has multiple paths for the current to follow; each component is connected directly to its neighbor.

A parallel circuit is one with multiple paths for the current to follow. This means that current doesn’t always have to go from one component to its neighbor – it can go from one component to another, and then backward again, then back again.

Parallel circuits look a bit like a ball of string. It’s easier for electrons to flow through the string because electrons can jump across components without needing to follow a path around them all.

Type 5: Short Circuit

When you look at a parallel circuit diagram, this is what it looks like when there’s a short in one of the wires. A short circuit is an accidental connection between two components that should not be connected. This is a very dangerous arrangement because even the small amount of current flowing through the short circuit can be enough to cause damage to the component it’s connected to – or even an explosion!

Electronic Boards

Electronic boards are the heart of any electronic device. The components in an electronic board are connected together to allow circuits to be created and powered. Many components (capacitors, resistors, diodes, and transistors) have their own specific purpose in creating or powering a circuit.

We connect each part in a predetermined way – we place and link all the components according to the correct schematic diagram.

Electronic boards are pieces of hardware that hold all the components necessary to create and power a circuit. You can make them from different layers, each one adding different properties to the board.

When we mention electronic boards, then we get the idea of PCB (Printed Circuit Board). The parts are all connected together using long, thin tracks of copper. In this case, these tracks are what we call a circuit board – printed circuit boards. First, one has to insert the components into the board in the correct way. The holes that the components fit into are like a puzzle – if you put them in the wrong way round or upside down, they don’t fit and won’t hold. We usually make PCBs from a number of layers.

Once can consider electronic boards as ‘hardware’ because they have electronic components, like resistors and capacitors, that can store and create electrical energy. We also call them ‘circuit boards’ because all the components will connect to each other using copper tracks that carry electricity between them.

Conclusion

To sum it all up, you’ve just learned about the basics of electronics: what they are and how they work. Electronics include a wide range of products that have different applications and uses in technology. Many of the electronics you use on a daily basis are hidden from sight and perform complex functions – from regulating the temperature of your home to making sure your car starts, to providing you with entertainment!

However, when it comes down to it, the major component in all electronic systems are electrons. This is because electrons flow inside of wires and interact with electromagnetic waves. This is the basic idea behind electronics.

Electronics have come a long way over the years – from the early experiments of scientists such as Thomas Edison to today’s microprocessors, computers, cell phones, and much more! And now, Rayming PCB & Assembly is here to offer the best when it comes to PCB manufacturing.

 

 

 

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