5G Technology - A Revolution in Telecommunication Industry

High Profile 5G 12 Layer PCB developed At Rayming PCB

High Profile 5G PCB developed

High Profile 5G PCB developed

5G technology

 

5G Technology

 

The 5G (stands for 5th Generation) technology is the whole new innovation in the field of telecommunication industry. It is the iteration of existing cellular 4G LTE (Long Term Evolution) technology. This 5G technology can break the records of high speed and reliable internet connection, cellular and satellite communication. It is estimated that average download speed of up-to 1GBps and the data rates as high as 20 GBps with latency less than 1mS is possible. This is astonishingly amazing to know that this high speed communication can open new doors to various applications in small and large businesses, entertainment and multimedia, smart home, autonomous driving in automobile sector, Medical field in surgery, technology, mobile, and satellite communication and in IoT.

 

Latency: It is the time required by data to travel from source to destination.

 

The high speed 5G technology can enable the real time control and monitoring of machines and devices like robots, drones, automobiles, and other machines that will transmits feedback signal to the operator and receives command signals in response, this all done in high speed communication link.

 

4G Vs 5G Technology:

 

Parameters 4G 5G
Latency 10ms 1ms or less
Max Data Rate 1 Gbps 20Gbps
Transmitted Power 23dbm except for 2.5GHz TDD 26dbm at 2.5GHz and above
No of Mobile Connections 8 billion 11 billion
Frequency Range 600 MHz to 5.925 GHz 600 MHz to 28,39 and 80 GHz (mm wave technology)
Channel BW (Band Width) 20 MHz 100 MHz for 6 GHz

400 MHz for above 6 GHz

Uplink Wave form SC-FDMA CP-OFDM
Download speed 100 Mbps 10,000 Mbps
Deployment Year 2006-2010 2020
User Data BW (Practical Analyses) Mobile = 10-30Mbps

Fixed = 50-60 Mbps (cm wave)

Mobile = 80-100 Mbps

Fixed = 1-3 Gbps (mm wave)

Coverage per Antenna & Usage Mobile = 50-150 Km (City, Rural area)

Fixed = 1-2 Km (High Density Area)

Mobile = 50-80 Km (City, Rural area)

Fixed = 250-300 meter (High Density Area)

 

How 5G Works:

 

The cellular networks are actually the cluster of small cells and these cells are further divided into sectors. In 4G LTE, the high power towers of cell are transmitting electromagnetic radiation to cover longer distances. However on the other hand 5G uses small towers mounted at every 1 Km on different types of high elevated places like rooftops and poles in large quantity. These many small cells transmit radiation of the wavelength of the order of few millimeter. These millimeter electromagnetic waves can travel smaller distances and travel in line of sight hence it is hindered by any physical objects like tall buildings and can be disturbed by weather conditions as a result degrading the signal strength.

 

The lower frequency spectrum of 5G can reach longer distance but data rates will be compromised while mm wave have smaller distance but higher data rates.

 

 

5G Cellular Network Base Station Types

                                                                                                                            (Fig- 5G Cellular Network Base Station Types)

 

What is mm Wave..?

 

The millimeter (mm) wave spectrum falls in the frequency range of 30 GHz to 300 GHz. This phenomenal range of frequency has the wavelength of 1mm to 10mm. The mm wave are also known as VHF or EHF Very High Frequency or Extremely High Frequency respectively names given by ITU.

 

The mm waves are susceptible to heavy rainfall. The mm wave signal strength will drop when heavy droplets of rain interfere with mm wave i.e when the size of droplet or ice crystals reach the size of mm wave which is about few inches, then severe attenuation will be observed. This is also for snowy season with thick/dense blizzards are observed. This phenomenon is commonly known as “Rain Fade” or “Rain Loss”. This phenomenon can affect the satellite communication in LEO, MEO and GEO earth orbits. This phenomenon can also hinder GPS signals. Licensed bands from FCC are 71-76 GHz, 81-86 GHz and 92-95 GHz to operated point-point high BW. Unlicensed band for short range communication can be done on 60 GHz mm wave spectrum

 

5G Antenna:

 

Unlike passive antennas that are used in common RF communication which are made of metal rods, 5G antennas are active antennas having semiconductor devices embedded inside the antenna. High speed 5G dedicated PCB design and fabrication is utmost important for 5G antenna and associated circuitry. At Rayming PCB we have developed state of the art 5G PCB. Please check out the snapshot of our 5G PCB.

 

5G Antenna

 

The basic technique used is the beam forming which allows the 5G antenna to emit radiation in a particular direction or pattern instead of emitting equally in all directions. The 5G antenna is made of massive MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) antennae. The massive / large number of antenna elements are used in phased array shape and different sizes are available. The individual antenna element size is small but are used in 100s to make dense array.

 

As a result the radio waves are directed to the targeted users with the help of advanced algorithms that determine the best route for radio waves to reach the end user. This phenomenon is known as beam steering. The beam steering is very effective and optimizes the power consumption and increase efficiency by eliminating the unwanted Omni directional radio transmission. As a result very high throughput thus allowing more people to connect simultaneously

 

 

5G Technology Applications:

 

  • High Speed Cellular Network

 

As discussed above, the extremely high data rates enable the calling, messaging and multimedia services to speed up and faster communication is possible. So no worry about call dropping and undelivered text messages or slow internet. 5G technology will give you unstoppable high speed services

 

  • Entertainment and Multimedia:

 

Now you can enjoy Netflix, Watch Live shows or download your favorite TV program, movies in the blink of an eye. Yes literally..! This is possible because of 5G high download speed up-to 10Gbps.

 

5G Technology Applications

  • Smart Home

 

The smart devices will be using 5G technology to connect to our mobile devices using wireless network for monitoring and control. High speed 5G connectivity can enable CCTV cameras to transmit live video streaming to our mobile devices

 

  • Logistics

 

High speed communication 5G link will enable logistics tracking, management and delivery of shipment online on our cell phones

 

  • 5G in Farming

 

Smart chips like RFID will be used in livestock to track position and activity. Smart agricultural machines can be controlled remotely through speedy 5G link.

 

  • Medical Surgery

 

Live video streaming inside the patient’s body for transplant and operation is possible today due to 5G

 

Medical Surgery

 

Autonomous Driving

 

  • Autonomous Driving

 

In future, automatic cars will be on roads. Cars will interact with traffic signals and can communicate with other cars by means of 5G high speed link. This enable those to detect an obstacle in matter of milliseconds (latency of 5G) and to avoid collision.