In this highly interconnected world, the thirst for highly efficient and stable communication protocols is never ending. The 5G network seems to be ground breaking. With the ever-increasing number of users and high demand for low latency, infinite bandwidth, it has now become need of hour to launch a new communication network featuring agile, automatic and intelligent operation. International Telecommunication Union has indexed 5G PCB services into three categories:
- Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB)
- Ultra-reliable and Low-latency communications (uRLLC)
- Massive machine type communications (mMTC)
Enhanced mobile broadband aims to provide services that have high demand for bandwidth, such as Virtual reality (VR), Augmented Reality (AR) and high definition videos (HD). Ultra-reliable and low-latency communication focuses on applications that are latency sensitive, such as automated driving, home automation systems and remote management. The main aim of Massive machine type communication is to meet demands that include high connection density, such as smart agriculture, smart advertisement and smart city programs.
The above diagram shows the architecture of 5th generation mobile communication network. 5G has cloudified the transport, core and access networks. Cloud adoption allows diversified 5G services and enables the end-to-end network slicing and component-based network functions. CloudRAN is made up of mobile cloud engines and sites. Multi-connectivity is introduced to allow deployment of network for non-real time RAN resources. The transport network includes SDN controllers and underlying forwarding nodes. In the form of API, enabling plane analyses network capabilities to perform network optimization. The network architecture top layer is meant for E2E automatic slicing and resource management.
The 5G network has the capability of accommodating 10,00,000 users for every 0.38 square miles. The size of cell will be small as the communication frequency is very high and it is not possible to transmit signals with less wavelength to be transmitted far enough. The only drawback of this system will be installation of multiple BTS on a single location which will be much more enough as compared to the cell size of 4G network. The peak data rate for 5G network according to IMT-2020 specifications is 20 Gbit/s, while the data rate that will be achievable by the users across the coverage area will be 1 Gbit/s. The latency rate, time interval between the stimulation i.e sending of command from user to network and response i.e receiving of data from network to user in response of ping made, in case of uRLLC will be 1 ms and in case of eMBB it will be 8 ms as set by 3GPP authorities. The maximum speed for handoff during user mobility from one cell to other according to Quality of Service requirements is 500 km/h while the total number of devices that can be entertained per unit area will be / in case of both eMBB and uRLLC. The throughput for this network will be at least three to four times of 4G network.
The spectrum allotted to 5G communication network is above 6 GHz. If the spectrum below 6 GHz will be used then according to 3GPP specifications the performance of the network will be close to 4G communication network because to increase throughput and decrease the latency of the system, Federal Communications Commission has doubled the millimeter-wave spectrum license to 14 GHz to be used to 5G network communication system.
The major applications of 5G network will be:
- Internet of things (IoT):Devices that use internet as a mode of communication and interconnection will now provide reliable services using 5G network due to it high bandwidth and throughput properties.
- AR and VR gaming:The development of new gaming platforms that provide real time experience to end users will be highly encouraged through 5G. Due to high bandwidth and low latency, real time applications will be achievable.
- Driver less cars:The extremely low latency and network slicing of 5G for specifically such kind of applications will allow sending of commands and receiving of data to cars in a very short time span with almost no delay over large distance are the reasons behind interest of automobile industry in 5G.
- Telesurgery:Future advancements in the field of healthcare involves telesurgery. 5G will help in enabling remote surgeries in which robots will be used for surgeries specially the one that can detect cancerous lumps under the skin while giving sense of touch to remotely operating surgeon on real time basis.
The fifth-generation network cannot be implemented using pre-installed devices. For this system new BTS and BSE stations with advanced routers and switches needs to be installed that will be capable of transmitting and receiving signals of such high frequency. The traditional or the mobile phones available these days are not compatible with this network because higher the frequency smaller will be the antenna required to receive and transmit it. New antennas and circuitry will be designed, Samsung and OnePlus claim to be the first one in the race of launching 5G compatible phones next year.
All these devices and mobile phones operating at higher frequencies and the circuits of latency, noise sensitive applications that will be using 5G network will be implemented using Rogers pcb material for their PCB manufacturing. Rogers materials offer wide range of dielectric constants and are highly recommended for circuits with high operating frequency and low signal to noise ratio. Rayming PCB and Assembly is one of the largest Rogers PCB’s manufacturer in China. To consult anything regarding material selection and design complications please send email to firstname.lastname@example.org