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2.4 GHz PCB Antenna Design: A Comprehensive Overview

These days, antennas are almost everywhere. The majority of common technologies, such as security, smartphones, and Internet of Things devices, rely on antennas. So, they can interact with one another, making RF among the most intriguing and robust fields of design and engineering. Thus, today’s objective is to impart some fundamental knowledge to readers regarding what an antenna is, how it functions, and how to construct an antenna of 2.4 GHz.

2.4 GHz PCB Antenna Design In General

Although the topic of this post is a 2.4 GHz PCB antenna, some fundamental background knowledge regarding antennas would be extremely helpful for novices. Unless you’re an expert or even if your goal is to learn simply about just PCBs antenna, you may skip this section.

Review the resonance circuits and Impedance matching quickly in order to properly get antennas. For optimal power transmission, source and load impedances must match precisely.

An antenna refers to a structural device used to transform high-frequency electricity into electromagnetic signals and likewise. An antenna has a wire or a set of wires. This particular kind of transducer transforms high-frequency electrical currents into electromagnetic waves.

According to the frequency, dielectric material, and wire length, the wire serves as an impedance that matches the transmission line. An antenna has to be capable of matching the load and transmission line.

Whereas if impedance matching is right, the energy shall start the transmission. It emits into the environment in a similar fashion to how a transformer transfers energy itself from primary through second. An antenna must be capable of transferring energy from electrical to electromagnetic.

Types of 2.4 2.4 GHz PCB Antenna Design

2.4 GHz PCB
2.4 GHz PCB

Any conductors with a frequency of 4 uncovered in empty space must be put on a plane ground layer. It should be supplied with an appropriate voltage before it can be employed as an antenna, as indicated in the preceding section. The antenna might be as tall as a car’s FM antenna or as small as the trail on a signaling buoy. It depends on the wavelength. Most PCBs antenna for 2.4GHz usage falls into one of the following categories.

· Wire Antenna 2.4 GHz PCB Antenna Design

The ground plane is home to this 4-inch-long wavelength wire segment that extends into the available area of the Circuit. A transmission cable with 50-ohm impedance powers this antenna.

Wire antennas often offer the best functionality and radiation coverage. The wire may be looped, spiraled, or straight. The length of the antenna is about 4-5mm above the Board and stretches into space in this three-dimensional configuration.

The cable antenna is just a typical, vintage type of antenna. A paper clip or just a single aluminum wire is fastened to the Board to create this antenna. Five spots of -6mm stand parallel towards this layer after the aluminum cable or perhaps the paper clip being put on the circuit. It is in the shape of a spiral.

Its RF efficiency is outstanding because they’re used as a 3D antenna exposure to the wind. This antenna features a much more isotropic radiation design and the finest signal range. The wire antenna’s wireless range can go beyond 100 feet.

This kind of antenna really isn’t best for BLE purposes that call for a tiny factor antenna. Since it takes up quite a bit of space and longitudinal height, this type of antenna, however, may achieve the optimum radio frequency spectrum and directivity if the space is more than enough.

The cable antenna performs well in terms of radio frequency. Wire antennas perform best in terms of radiation performance and antenna gain compared to other types of antenna.

· PCB Antenna 2.4 GHz PCB Antenna Design

It’s a type of PCB trace that can be designed as a straight, serpentine, round, or inverted F-shaped footprint on the Circuit Board. Unlike a wire antenna, a PCB antenna supports a two-dimensional arrangement attached to the same layer of PCB rather than being exposed to its external environment.

Several rules must be adhered to ensure that the 3D antenna revealed to space is positioned on the same layer of PCB as a 2-dimensional PCB trace. In comparison to wire antennas, this often takes up more PCB area, is less efficient but less expensive, and it offers BLE applications a usable wireless range.

· Chip Antenna 2.4 GHz PCB Antenna Design


This is a conductor-equipped antenna. In a tiny IC package, the conductor and antenna are available. It is particularly beneficial once you pack the antenna in a tiny size. If there is an insufficient area on the Circuit Board to design the Circuit antenna, apps like USB nano transmitters are going to utilize this antenna.

Chip antennas prove to be a useful solution for specialized applications with really tiny PCB sizes, like Bluetooth transceivers. They can offer higher performance, take up the least amount of PCB space, and are available as ready-made antennas. The tiny chip antenna, however, adds to BOM and demands additional expenses for assembly because buying and assembling external components are required.

Another essential aspect that is impacted by the radio-active ground area should be taken into account when employing a tiny chip antenna. As a result, the manufacturer’s advice on the grounding space must be heeded. Chip antennas can indeed not be modifiable by varying the length of the antenna, in contrast to PCB antennas. Further, BOM will be included since a similar network is necessary to modify the antenna.

The majority of applications need PCB antennas like IFA or MIFA. These compact small traces antennas aren’t just inexpensive and function quite well.

The grounding plane controls how well the chip antenna performs. Usually speaking, they require a larger room and ground area. It’s not necessary for chip antennas to be completely isotropic. There is a favor for some radiation directions. The path of the highest radiation varies as well, depending on plastic components and Gnd spacing.

2.4G Antenna Design Antenna Selection

Determine the selection of the antennas by factors like their intended use, existing PCB space, radiation range, cost, and directivity.

Applications that use BLE or low-power Bluetooth, like a wireless mouse, only need a 10-inch range of radiation along with a few kbps communication speeds. Nevertheless, for remotely controlled applications employing speech recognition, a separate indoor antenna seems to be necessary. The data rate of the antenna is 64kbps, and its radiation range ranges between 10 and 15 inches.

There is a need for a versatile antenna for portable audio devices. The term “diversity antenna” describes the placement of two antennas solely on a single circuit board. Regardless of whether there is blockage of additional antenna by multipath attenuation and reflection, at least one antenna will always be capable of receiving some radiation.

A diverse antenna is necessary when delivering authentic audio information. Also, when there is a need for greater throughput without packet loss, it might also be useful for indoor locations in beacon devices.

· Considering For 2.4 GHz PCB Antenna Design Feed

Such width constraints are rather lax for traces of PCB that serve shorter antennas. Ensure that the trace of the antenna and the feed contact of the antenna is of the same width.

· Considering For 2.4 GHz PCB Antenna Design Length

Modify the antenna MIFA’s length to account for the various PCB thicknesses in order to modify the frequency and impedance choices of the radiation of the antenna. Each length of the antenna has a C&T RF Antenna based on the size of the PCB.

· Influence Of Environment On 2.4 GHz PCB Antenna Design Performance

In general, the size and thickness of the Resonance Frequency ground board of the Printed Circuit Board and the plastic shell of the product have a significant impact on the performance of antennas utilized during consumer goods. A type of LC resonator is useful to replicate the antenna. The LC resonator’s resonance frequency will drop when L, which refers to inductance, or C, which refers to capacitance, rises. The functional capacitance will rise with a bigger RF plane and plastic covering, lowering the RF as a result.

· Influence Of The Ground Plane of 2.4 GHz PCB Antenna Design

By mounting an antenna onto a Circuits Board of various potential sizes, studies may be performed to determine how sensitive the antenna is to the thickness of the Resonance frequency ground plane.

The RF will be lower, and the grounding layer will be better with a greater radio frequency grounding layer area, resulting in a lesser return loss. This constitutes an essential element of a successful PCB layout.

The quarter-wave performance of the antenna will be more closely correlated with the theoretical performance the greater the ground layer offered. This fundamental idea in antenna structure can address the challenge of having insufficient room for grounded tiny modular antennas.

· Impact Of The Plastic Housing of 2.4 GHz PCB Antenna Design

Similarly, a Bluetooth mouse is useful for testing with the antenna in the plastic shell before measuring the resonance frequency of the antenna in hopes of determining the effect of the plastic shell of the product on antennas.

The operating frequency will drop if the antenna is put near the polymer enclosure.

Between 100MHz and 200MHz is the resonance frequency. To get the necessary frequency band, adjust the antenna needs.

In order to lower the antenna’s resonance frequency to the limit of 100MHz through 200MHz, it is necessary to increase the thickness of the grounding layer as well as the plastic casing.

2.4 GHz PCB Antenna Design Shell And Ground Plane Guidelines

  1. A component, ground plane, or fixing screw must not be located close to the antenna’s tip or along its length.
  2. It is not possible for the audio cable and battery cable to pass via the same surface of the wiring of the antenna upon the Circuit Board.
  3. The metal casing cannot entirely enclose the antenna. Certainly, do not totally enclose the antenna, even when the shell of the product is literally of metal or perhaps a protective covering.
  4. For the antenna to have the most radiation in the intended way, the position of antenna D should coincide with the path of the finished product.
  5. Should have enough room: MIFA, chip antenna, IFA, and cable antenna S11 parameter values increase with increasing ground layer size.
  6. No ground plane should be located directly beneath the antenna F. All antennas are subject to this setting.
  7. The grounding plane must have a sufficient distance between it. The antenna, and its width must be as short as possible.




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